Perception of Nigerian Cocoa Farmers on Child Labour: Implications for Hazardous Child Labour

Main Article Content

O. A. Williams
B. S. Famuyiwa
I. F. Abdulkarim


This paper investigated perception of Nigerian cocoa farmers on Hazardous Child Labour. More importantly, in accordance with International Labour Organisation Child Labour Convention. Accidents, exposure to chemicals, bacteria or viral infection, ergonomically inappropriate tools, child molestation, minimum age requirement, awkward posture, and poor academic performance were identified as farm hazards. Multistage sampling technique was used for the methodology, the selection of study areas, Ondo and Cross-River states was purposive and 240 respondents were randomly selected. Information were solicited by issuance of questionnaires and interview schedule. Data were analysed using percentage, mean, frequency counts, standard deviation, pie chart, bar chart and correlation analysis. The study revealed a mean age of 45.32±8 years and 66.67% of the farmers, who employed children between 5-17 years of which 80% of them were attending secondary schools as labourers. Cocoa farmers (63%) had one form of education which is an indication of being able to read and write. Almost half of the respondents (49.58%) attested that, they can call upon these children, to work at any time on their cocoa farms. Respondents (60.40%) employed only family labour for their farming activities. Population of 50.80% of the respondents held the view that, child labour was part of socialization and 52.50% saw it as a way of building children up for future. Farmers (55.80%) reported that, child labour was a source of cheap labour and 82.50% of respondents had worked on the farm as labourer during their growing up years. It was revealed that, majority of farmers have high awareness and knowledge on hazardous child labour based on the listed farm hazards, however their practice also was high. Correlation analysis showed that, there was positive and significant relationship between perception and practice of hazardous child labor, r = 0.628** (P≤0.01) which indicated that, majority of respondents are still in the practice of exposing children labourers to hazards. It was concluded that, cocoa farmers should change their perception on hazardous child labour, as it negatively affects the physical, psychological and emotional well-being of a children. Furthermore, awareness should be created to educate farmers in the study areas, on definition and why hazardous child labour should be eliminated. This will contributes to households breaking out of the cycle of poverty and the country to advance in human development.

Perception, child labour, hazardous, cocoa farmers and Nigeria

Article Details

How to Cite
Williams, O. A., Famuyiwa, B. S., & Abdulkarim, I. F. (2016). Perception of Nigerian Cocoa Farmers on Child Labour: Implications for Hazardous Child Labour. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, 10(3), 1-11.
Original Research Article