Main Article Content
Addressing a lot of marginal and small farmers in developing country like India, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute introduced an alternate approach to public extension as IARI-Post office Linkage Extension Model in 2009 to reach out the grass root farmers with improved frontline technologies in remote villages through Branch post masters. In the initial expansion phase, there is a need to analyze the impact and future perspective of the model in relation to farmers' behaviours. Interpreting farmers' orientation towards the model could be measured through attitude scale construction with the new concept. Likert-type scale was considered with statements preparation and validation through juries' method and relevancy score method. The scale was pretested in a non-sample area. Item analysis of thirty-six (36) filtered statements could reduce to eighteen (18) reliable attitude statements in the final scale with accepted "t" values. The reliability test showed the scale was quite reliable through Cronbach alpha value as 0.75 and split half reliability full test value as 0.72 after Spearman-Brown correction. The scale was found to be valid through content validity and known group method test. The scale was administered to the sample farmers with five point continuum response in the Likert scale would categorize farmers into five classes like least favourable, less favourable, favourable, highly favourable, very highly favourable attitudes. Measuring attitude through a standardized scale of stakeholders facilitates future strategy and decision making by policy makers. It can be further validated in meeting several future innovative extension methods.
Pal S. Agricultural Rand policy and institutional reforms: Learning form the experiences of India and China, Economic and Political Weekly. 2008;145-155.
Joshi PK, Pal S, Birthal PS, Bantilan MCS. Impact of Agricultural Research: Post Green Revolution Evidence from India, NCAP/ICRISAT, New Delhi; 2005.
Saravanan R. Privatization of agricultural extension. Private Extension in India: Myths, Realities, Apprehensions and Approaches, Shekara, PC (Ed.). 2001;60-71.
Burman RR, Sarkar S, Sangeetha V, Dubey SK, Sharma JP, Singh I, Gupta HS. Critical analysis of IARI-Post office linkage extension model: An innovative extension approach to reach the unreached. Indian Research Journal of Extension Education. 2016;15(1):12-19.
Ray GL. Extension Communication and Management (Rev.), Kalyani Publisher. New Delhi, India; 2013.
Allport G. A handbook of social psychology, Clark Univ. Press, Worcester. 1935;798-844.
Allport G. A handbook of social psychology, Clark Univ. Press, Worcester. 1935;810.
Thurstone LL. Note on a reanalysis of Davis' reading tests. Psychometrika. 1946; 11(3):185-188.
Krech D, Crutchfield RS. Theory and problems of social psychology. 1948;152.
Campbell DT. The indirect assessment of social attitudes. Psychological Bulletin. 1950;47(1):31.
Rokeach M. A theory of organization and change within value‐attitude systems. Journal of Social Issues. 1968;24(1):13-33.
Triandis HC. Attitude and attitude change. New York: Wiley;1971.
Gross R. Psychology: The science of mind and behaviour 7th edition. Hodder Education; 2015.
Mueller DJ. Measuring social attitudes: A handbook for researchers and practitioners. New York: Teachers College Press; 1986.
Thurstone LL, Chave EJ. The measurement of attitude. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press; 1929.
Neuman WL. Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. USA: Allyn & Bacon; 2000.
Murphy, Gardner and Rensis Likert Public Opinion and the Individual. New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers; 1938.
Hinkin TR, Tracey JB, Enz CA. Scale construction: Developing reliable and valid measurement instruments. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research. 1997; 21(1):100-120.
Likert R. A technique for the measurement of attitudes. Archives of psychology; 1932.
Dwyer EE. Attitude Scale Construction: A Review of the Literature; 1993.
Lemon N. Attitudes and their measurement; 1973.
Edwards AL. Techniques of attitude scale construction. Vakils and Simon Pvt. Ltd., Bombay; 1969.
Dyer C. Beginning Research in Psychology. Oxford: Blackwell; 1995.
Kumar PG, Ratnakar R. A scale to measure Farmers' Attitude towards ICT-based Extension Services. Indian Res. J. Ext. Edu. 2011;11(1):109-112.
Spector PE. Summated rating scale construction. An introduction. Sage Publication, Newbury Park; 1992.
Anderson JE. The effect of item analysis upon the discriminative power of an examination. Journal of Applied Psychology. 1935;19(3):237.
Ferguson GA. Statistical analysis in psychology and education (5th Ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company; 1981.
Hassan AM, Shrigley RL. Designing a Likert scale to measure chemistry attitudes. School Science and. Mathematics. 1984;84:659-669.
Edwards AL. Techniques of attitude scale construction. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc; 1957.
Nunnally JC. McGraw-Hill series Jn psychology: psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill BookCompany; 1967.
Cronbach LJ. Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika. 1951;16:297-334.
Wainer H, Braun HI. (Eds.) Test validity. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers; 1988.
American Psychological Association. Standards for educational and psychological tests and manuals. Washington DC.: author;1966.
Cronbach LJ. Essentials of psychological testing. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, Incorporated; 1960.
Anastasi A. Evolving concepts of test validation. Annual Reviews of Psychology. 1986;37:1-15.
Holland PW. On the study of differential item performance and the Mantel-Haenszel procedure. In Wainer H, Braun HI. (Eds.), Test Validity. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. 1985; 129-145.
Kerlinger FN. Foundations of educational research. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart & Wineston; 1986.