A Study on Perception and Adaptation of the Farmers toward Climate Change in the Western Region of Nepal

Main Article Content

Parmita Poudel
Sittal Thapa
Sarthak Ghimire
Elina Sen

Abstract

Aims: This study was undertaken to identify the perception of farmers towards climate change and their adaptation towards the change. The study also identified the sources of climate change information at the local level and their expectation from concerned authorities regarding the agriculture-related issues pertaining to climate change.

Study Design: The study was conducted in two different geographical region Arghakhanchi (hilly) and Kapilvastu (terai) to represent the major farming region of the country.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in two districts which are Arghakhanchi and Kapilvastu, of western Nepal. A total of 120 samples such that 60 samples each were taken from both districts in the month of September and October of 2018.

Methodology: A semi-structured questionnaire was designed to collect data from participants.

Results: The study has revealed that the majority of the farmers have perceived an increase in temperature, a decrease in rainfall and late on-set of the rainy season. Similarly, radio was found to be the primary source of climate change information, followed by television. Change in planting season and decrease in the farm size under cultivation were found to be the most adapted practices among farmers against climate change. Furthermore, it was found that majority of the farmers expect to have crop insurance and availability of improved variety seeds as support from government and concerned authorities.

Conclusion: Most of the respondents made the accurate assumptions regarding climate change. Understanding the relationship between the climate change and agriculture and perception of people towards those changes is essential. It helps to evaluate possible impacts that may result from further changes in climate and plan suitable adaptation practices. Knowledge about these findings can be useful for making various plans and policies for mitigating the impacts of climate change on agriculture in the studied area. 

Keywords:
Climate change, perception, adaptation, information, Western Nepal

Article Details

How to Cite
Poudel, P., Thapa, S., Ghimire, S., & Sen, E. (2020). A Study on Perception and Adaptation of the Farmers toward Climate Change in the Western Region of Nepal. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, 38(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i130292
Section
Original Research Article

References

Anonymous. Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added (% of GDP). World Bank; 2017.
(Accessed 26 June 2019)
Available:https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS?locations=NP

Adams RM, Hurd BH, Lenhart S, Leary N. Effects of global climate change on agriculture: An interpretative review. Climate Research. 1998;11:19-30.

Malla G. Climate Change and its Impact on Nepalese Agriculture. The Journal of Agricultural and Environment. 2008;9:62-70.

Pachauri RK. Global warming: Impacts and implications for South Asia;1992.

Anonymous. UNFCCC. Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC). UNFCCC; 2016.
(Accessed 7 January 2020)
Available:https://www4.unfccc.int/sites /submissions/INDC/Published%20 Documents/Nepal/1/Nepal_INDC_08Feb_2016.pdf

Olesen JE, Bindi M. Consequences of climate change for European agricultural productivity, land use and policy. Eur. J. Agron. 2002;16:239–262.

Bocchiola D, Brunetti L, Soncini A, Polinelli F, Gianinetto M. Impact of climate change on agricultural productivity and food security in the Himalayas: A case study in Nepal. Agricultural Systems. 2019;17:113-125.

Sharma K, Khanal SN. A review and analysis of existing legaland policy issues related to land tenure and agriculture in Nepal. Kathmandu Univ J Sci Eng Technol. 2010;6(2):133–141.

Duncan JMA, Biggs EM, Dash J, Atkinson PM. Spatio-temporal trends in precipitation and their implications for water resources management in climate-sensitive Nepal. Applied Geography. 2013; 43:138-146.

Karki R, Gurung A. An overview of climate change and its impact on agriculture: A review from least developing country, Nepal. International Journal of Ecosystem. 2012;2(2):19-24.

Panthi J, Daha P, Shrestha ML, Aryal S, Krakauer NY, Pradhanang SM, Lakhankar T, Jha AK, Sharma M, Karki R. Spatial and temporal variability of rainfall in the Gandaki River Basin of Nepal Himalaya. Climate. 2015;3(1):210-226.

Bryan E, Deressa T, Gbetibouo GA, Ringler C. Adaptation to climate change in Ethiopia and South Africa: Options and Constraints. 2009;12(4):413-426.

Anonymous. Employment in Agriculture, female(% of female employment) (modeled ILO estimate. World Bank; 2019.
(Accessed 7 January 2020)
Available:https://databank.worldbank.org/source/world-development-indicators#

Anonymous. Country gender assessment of agriculture and the rural sector in Nepal. Kathmandu. FAO. 2019;76.
Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

Pudasaini SP. The effects of education in agriculture: Evidence from Nepal. American Journal of Agricultural Economics. 1983;65(3):509.

Anonymous. National Population and Housing Census. National Planning Commission Secretariat, Kathmandu, Nepal. CBS; 2011.

Sharma DK. Landholding size and educational and occupational status in Two Villages of Dang. The Geographical Journal of Nepal. 2011;8:43-52.

Shrestha S. Status of agricultural mechanization in Nepal. United Nations Asian and Pacific Center for Agricultural Engineering and Machinery (UNAPCAEM); 2012.

Shrestha AB, Wake CP, Mayewski PA, Dibb JE. Maximum temperature trends in the Himalaya and its vicinity: An analysis based on temperature records from Nepal for the period 1971–94. Journal of Climate.1999;12(9):2775-2786.

Ghimire NP, Aryal M. Analysis of perception and adaptation to climate change by farmers in Gulmi District, Nepal. Journal of Agriculture and Environment. 2013;14:31-43.

Bhandari Govinda. Trends in seasonal precipitation and temperature – A review In Doti and Surkhet Districts of Nepal. International Journal of Environment. 2013;2.

Budhathoki NK, Zander KK. Nepalese farmers’ climate change perceptions, reality and farming strategies. Climate and Development. 2019:1-12.

Subba S, Ma Y, Ma W. Spatial and temporal analysis of precipitation extremities of Eastern Nepal in the last two decades (1997–2016). Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres; 2019.

Ghimire N, Aryal M, Regmi P, Thapa R, Pande K, Pant K. Perception analysis of climate change and adaptations by smallholder farmers in Nepal. Journal of Agriculture and Environment. 2018;17: 104-110.

Bhusal R. Nepal’s farmers wait for rain: An erratic monsoon in irrigation dependent Nepal has thrown into disarray the rice plantation schedule, a critical factor in the country’s agriculture based economy; 2014.
(Accessed 8 January 2020)
Available:https://thethirdpole.net/en/2014/07/09/nepals-farmers-wait-for-rain/

Colom A, Pradhan S. Nepal: How the people of Nepal live with climate change and what communication can do; 2013.
(Accessed 8 January 2020)
Available:https://dataportal.bbcmediaaction.org/site/assets/uploads/2016/07/Nepal-Report.pdf

Khanal U, Wilson C, Hoang V, Lee B. Farmers' adaptation to climate change, its determinants and impacts on rice yield in Nepal. Ecological Economics. 2018;144: 139-147.

Sujakhu NM, Ranjitkar S, Niraula RR, Pokharel B K, Schmidt-Vogt D, Xu J. Farmers' perceptions of and adaptations to changing climate in the Melamchi valley of Nepal. Mountain Research and Develop-ment. 2016;36(1):15-31.

Barrueto A, Merz J, Clot N, Hammer T. Climate changes and their impact on agricultural market systems: Examples from Nepal. Sustainability. 2017;9(12): 2207.

Fadina A, Barjolle D. Farmers’ adaptation strategies to climate change and their implications in the Zou Department of South Benin. Environments. 2018;5(1):15.

Regmi N, Dhakal D, Ghimire B. Determinants of farmers adaptation to climate change: A case from Syangja District of Nepal. 2017;1.

Aryal JP, Sapkota TB, Khurana R, Khatri-Chhetri A, Jat ML. Climate change and agriculture in South Asia: Adaptation options in smallholder production systems. Environment, Development and Sustainability. 2019;1-31.

Kassem HS, Bello ARS, Alotaibi BM, Aldosri FO, Straquadine GS. Climate change adaptation in the delta Nile Region of Egypt: Implications for agricultural extension. Sustainability. 2019;11(3):685.