Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics &amp; Sociology (ISSN:&nbsp;2320-7027)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJAEES/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Agricultural Extension, Economics &amp; Sociology research’. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology 2320-7027 Access and Use of Information by Smallholder Dairy Farmers: A Case Study of Meru and Uasin Gishu Counties, Kenya <p>Dairy in Kenya is a major source of employment, with smallholders contributing more than 70 percent of gross marketed milk production. Dairy marketing is dominated by the informal sector where raw milk is sold directly to consumers, suggesting low use of technical know-how to improve production as well as quality and safety of milk. The study therefore was conducted to understand the level of information on dairy, as well as determine factors influencing the awareness of dairy standards among smallholder dairy farmers in Meru and Uasin Gishu counties in Kenya.&nbsp; A random sample of 273 households was selected and personal interviews conducted. Data were entered and analysed by use of the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (version 20). Descriptive statistics by use of percentages, and a logistic regression model were used to analyse data. The results depict a low level of information on quality and safety of milk, and the regulatory institutions in Kenya had limited influence on improved milk production, quality and safety. Farmers with marketing contracts, those with an upgraded value chain were more likely to access information, while older farmers were less likely to access the information. In order to increase complicity with the regulations, regulatory institutions should increase awareness on the potential benefits of adhering to dairy standards. Farmers should be registered and enter contracts with buyers, and older farmers targeted to provide information. Research and development organisations should make farmers aware so that farmers can demand for information and lobby for services from government institutions.</p> S. N. Makokha V. Metto D. Yongo D. Nyongesa M. Mwirigi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-19 2020-10-19 1 10 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1030422 Financial Returns of Maize and Bean Production under Selected Tillage Practices in Semi-arid Area of Mwala Sub County, Kenya <p>An on-farm experiment was carried out to assess the short term financial returns over four cropping seasons of selected tillage practices and cropping systems in semi-arid Mwala Sub County of Kenya. The tillage treatments were Disc Ploughing (DP), Disc Ploughing and Harrowing (DPH), Ox-ploughing (OX), Subsoiling – Ripping (SSR), Hand hoeing with Tied Ridges (HTR), and Hand hoeing (H) only. There were three cropping systems of Sole Maize (SM), Sole Bean (SB), and Maize - Bean intercrop (M + B), which were investigated in a Split-Plot Design with four replications. Input and output prices were obtained from the local markets and used to compute the financial returns. Across the tillage practices, higher net returns were realized in DPH (USD 1165), DP (USD 1014), and SSR (USD 866). In the cropping systems, the intercrop (USD 1051) and sole bean (USD 954) reported higher benefits than sole maize (USD 692). Based on marginal analysis, it is economically viable to recommend the SSR with sole bean systems to farmers in Mwala Sub County as it produced the higher BCR (&gt; 2) and an MRR (&gt; 100 %) which is comfortable to most farmers.</p> Anne N. Karuma Patrick T. Gicheru Charles K. K. Gachene ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-20 2020-10-20 11 23 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1030424 Documentation and Analysis of Digital Start-Ups in Agriculture and Improving Public Extension System from Digital Start-Up Experiences <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To document and analyze digital start-ups operating in the field of agriculture and suggesting some strategies to improve public extension system.<br><strong>Study Design:</strong> Descriptive was employed for the study.<br><strong>Duration of the Study:</strong> Study was carried out between last quarter of 2018 and first quarter of 2019.<br><strong>Methodology:</strong> Desk study method was adopted to document the start-ups and focus group discussion was carried out with the experts in the field of agriculture extension.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Fifty two digital start-ups were operating in the agriculture sector and these start-ups were placed into different components across agriculture value chain.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Government agencies are rich sources of data and on the other side start-ups lack data and are fully equipped to serve farmers. So, collaboration between the two could be a game changer in revolutionizing the agriculture extension system.</p> Dadimi Anil Kumar Reddy Shaik N. Meera M. A. Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-23 2020-10-23 24 32 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1030427 Factors Affecting Profitability of Agribusiness Activities: A Case Study of Smallholder Pig Farming in Tharaka-Nithi County, Kenya <p><strong>Aims: </strong>There have been concerted efforts to commercialize the pig sub-sector so as to make it more profitable to farmers, especially smallholder farmers. Despite the development, the profitability in the sector has not been consistent among the smallholder farmers. Smallholder farmers have been earning varying and dismal profits. The causes of the varying profits have not been empirically established with the influence of institutional arrangements from a transaction cost perspective and management factors contributing to this inconsistency not fully established. The study examined the influence of institutional arrangements and management factors on profit efficiency of smallholder pig farming in Tharaka-Nithi County, Kenya.</p> <p><strong>Research Methods: </strong>A two-stage sampling technique was employed in selection of 80 smallholder pig farmers. Semi-structured interview guides were administered and data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and stochastic frontier production function.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> The study revealed that male (75%) respondents dominated were within the active age, had 6 years pig farming experience with basic education. The results of Stochastic frontier production revealed that feed costs (p&lt;0.01) and breed type (p&lt;0.05) negatively reduced profit efficiency of the respondents while herd size (p&lt;0.05) and veterinary and drug costs (p&lt;0.01) positively influenced profit efficiency. Inefficiency was increased by Gender (p&lt;0.1) and Debt Asset Ratio (p&lt;0.01) while information trust (p&lt;0.05) and experience reduced.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The mean profit efficiency was 0.40 exhibiting low profit efficiency in the study area, efficiency level could be increased by 60% through better use of available resources, adoption of modern technology and transaction costs reduction. This would be acquired if good management practices and marketing channels are adopted. The gamma parameter (γ) was 0.63 meaning 63% net revenue variation is due to profit inefficiencies. The study contributes to Agribusiness field and would improve policies associated with agribusiness development in Kenya.</p> P. K. Micheni I. S. Nyariki G. K. Kosgei ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-23 2020-10-23 33 42 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1030428 Factors Affecting Extent of Haor Livelihood Diversification in Sunamganj District, Bangladesh <p>The present study aims to examine the contribution of fishing in total income and extent of<em>haor</em> livelihood diversification; and identify the factors affecting <em>haor</em>livelihood diversification of the fishing community.</p> <p>This study was conducted in <em>Dekhar Haor</em> of Sunamganj district. The data were collected from primary sources by using Simple random sampling from 100 respondents. Tobit model was used to determine the factors affecting the livelihood diversification. Fishing contributed highest to the household income. The estimated Simpson Index showed that fishermen have diversified their livelihood activities at medium level. The results showed that age of the respondents, years of schooling, access to credit and savings had positive effect, while, mode of land ownership, distance from the nearest market and value of household’s assets had negative effects on livelihood diversification. Non-farm employment opportunities should be expanded to increase<em>haor</em> livelihood diversification.</p> Muslima Akter Jasim Uddin Ahmed Kanij Fatema Tumpa Datta Khadija Akter ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-24 2020-10-24 43 51 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1030429