Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics &amp; Sociology (ISSN:&nbsp;2320-7027)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJAEES/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Agricultural Extension, Economics &amp; Sociology research’. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology 2320-7027 Informal Saving Group: A Pathway to Financial Inclusion among Rural Women in Nigeria <p>Financial inclusion is a key to economic development and has continually gained increased attention across countries, particularly in developing countries where there is relatively high rate of financial exclusion. In Nigeria, despite several measures taken to promote financial inclusion, there is still high rate of financial exclusion among rural women, as rural people and women are generally more financially excluded. This article provides an overview of financial inclusion, analysis of the patterns and dynamics of financial inclusion in Nigeria and the pathway for promoting financial inclusion among rural women is discussed. The article posits informal savings groups as a potential pathway to financial inclusion among rural women, by reviewing journal articles and grey literatures. The review shows that most rural women are participating in informal saving groups, but these saving groups are however faced with some challenges, such as limited income base, inability to receive remittance and vulnerability to theft. The pathway to financial inclusion among rural women discussed include, sensitizing these rural women through financial literacy, thereafter fostering informal saving groups which most rural women are already aware of their operations and thirdly, linking these groups to formal financial institutions. We conclude that informal saving groups have great potentials of accelerating financial inclusion among rural women, therefore Government should carry out financial literacy campaigns among rural women and policies that promote financial inclusion should be designed building on informal saving groups.</p> Chizoba Obianuju Oranu Ogochukwu Gabriella Onah Elizabeth Nkhonjera ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 22 30 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1230484 Knowledge and Attitude of Rural Women towards Agroforestry Practices in Kaduna State <p>Agroforestry practices offer a solution to the problem posed by the high demand on land and stands as a means of halting the vicious circle of deforestation, soil erosion and degradation. This study assessed the knowledge and attitude of rural women towards agroforestry practices in Kaduna State. The objectives of the study were to describe the socio-economic characteristics of rural women, examine the sources of information on agroforestry, find out the level of knowledge of rural women on agroforestry practices and ascertain the attitude of rural women toward agroforestry practices. From the thirteen (13) districts in Chikun LGA, six districts were randomly selected. Twenty women were sampled from each district to give a total of one hundred and twenty (120) respondents. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used to analyze the data. Knowledge test and Mean score were used to determine the knowledge and attitude of rural women towards agroforestry practices. Inferential statistics were used to test the hypotheses. The mean age was 30.23 years. Silvopastural, Taungya system and Tropical shelter wood system were the main types of agroforestry practices. Chi-square showed that there were significant relationships between some selected socio-economic characteristics such as age ( =75.625, p = .001), membership of organization ( = 16.499, p = .003), educational status ( = 11.704, p = .020) and agroforestry practices. Correlation analysis showed that there were significant relationships between knowledge (r = .652, p = .002), attitude (r = .264, p = .001) and agroforestry practices. In conclusion, rural women have low level of knowledge and unfavourable attitude towards agroforestry practices. This study recommends that agroforestry training should be conducted for the rural women in order to increase their knowledge level which will in turn lead to a favourable attitude towards agroforestry practices.</p> O. E. Olagunju B. Oluyaire L. Ganiyu M. M. Olorukooba S. O. Olafemi L. G. Tor ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 11 21 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1230482 Determinants of Women Participation in Micro and Small Enterprises in Hadiya Zone, Ethiopia <p>The study was undertaken with the objective of assessing determinants of women participation choice and intensity of participation in Micro and Small Enterprises in Hadiya zone, Ethiopia. Within the zone three town administrative were selected based the largest number of economic activities. The investigation was grounded on cross-sectional review information from 385 women Micro and Small Enterprise's undertakings participant and non-participant that were assigned using semi-structured interview schedule, key informants interview, focus group discussion, and personal observation. Secondary data was acquired from empirical reports, government policy documents, national statistical reports, journal articles and reports of different organizations. Heckman's two-stage selection model was applied to recognize factors influencing women's participation decision and intensity of participation in MSEs. The first level of probit model estimation results reveal that educational status, business experience, access to credit, access to training, achievement motivation, receiving remittance, information seeking behaviour and initial capital were emphatically and fundamentally impact the likelihood of women participation decision in MSE while age was negatively related and does significantly determine the participation choice of the women. The after effects of the second stage Heckman model demonstrated that the intensity of participation in Micro and Small Enterprises was significantly and positively influenced by educational status, access to market, access to transportation, and achievement motivation. Hence, this study recommends that government and concerned bodies are anticipated to enhance the educational level, skill, and knowledge development training, provide aids and subsidized to income, credit facilities, and the remittance-receiving channels. It is also suggested that women should formulate their own goals and they should participate in business by their own choice nevertheless of other alternatives accomplish well and actions need to be accepted to offer incentives for women who have faced a lack of available initial capital in the study area.</p> Habtamu Tadesse Yishak Gecho Tekle Leza ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 31 45 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1230485 Financial Inclusion of Farmers: A Case Study of Dhenkanal District of Odisha, India <p>Finance is essential for both economic growth and development of the country. Lack of access to finance for small, marginal farmers and weaker sections of the society has been recognized as a serious threat to economic progress especially in developing countries like India. Moreover, prolonged and persistent deprivation of banking services to a large segment of the population causing financial exclusion which leads to a decline in investment hindering economic development of the country. Thus, the need for inclusive growth comes in the picture of economic and social development of the society. The study was aimed at analysing the extent of financial inclusion among the farmers, a way to include the weaker and vulnerable section of society in the inclusive financial system which will make their present life better and secure with future plans. A multistage sampling technique was adopted in selecting one hundred farmers. Data were collected using survey schedule administered by the researcher. Descriptive statistical tools such as Garret’s ranking technique and inferential statistical tool such as multiple regression analysis were employed to analyse the data.</p> Sharda Priyadarshini P. K. Singh O. P. Singh Yash Gautam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 46 53 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1230486 Constraints in Utilization of Market Led Extension Practices by the Farmers <p>Market led extension is the market orientation of agriculture through extension, with a blend of economics, which aids in reaching the doorsteps of the farming community with the help of appropriate technologies. The present study was conducted with the objective of analyzing the constraints faced by the farmers in utilization of market led extension practices in grape, arecanut and maize crops. <em>Ex-post-facto</em> research design was used for carrying out the study. The study was conducted considering Uttara Kannada district for arecanut, Bagalkot and Vijayapura districts for grapes and Belagavi and Haveri districts for maize. The sample for the study was 240. The Garrett ranking technique was used to rank and analyze the constraints in utilization of market led extension practices as expressed by the farmers. The primary production constraint in all three crops was the higher cost of labour. Existence of numerous middlemen in the value chain was major marketing constraint in grapes, unstable market prices was major marketing constraint in arecanut and inadequate storage facilities which lead to distress sale was major marketing constraint in maize. The significant extension constraint was found to be lack of follow up activities by extension personnel in grapes and maize where as lack of credibility of online channels was significant extension constraint faced by arecanut growers.</p> C. Vasanthi J. G. Angadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 54 59 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1230487 Empirical Analysis of Economic Viability and Cost of Installation of 3 HP Solar Irrigation Pump in Jaipur, Rajasthan <p>With the increase in population, urbanisation and development in India, the demand for energy has increased in recent years. Today, India relies heavily on fossil fuels to meet its energy requirements. Hence, this study analyses the economic viability of 3 HP solar irrigation pump for farmers of Jaipur, Rajasthan. Since, solar irrigation pump is now being preferred over diesel irrigation pumps in the study area. Rajasthan was selected purposively because it receives the highest annual global radiation. Jaipur was selected because the number solar irrigation pumps were maximum. Payback period, net present worth, benefit cost ratio and internal rate of return was used to analyze the economic viability. From the results it was clear that the adoption of solar irrigation pumps was economically feasible in the study area.</p> Yash Gautam O. P. Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 60 67 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1230489 Effects of Climate Variability and Climate Change on Sorghum Productivity in the Cercle of Koutiala in Mali <p>The main objective of this study is to analyze the impact of climatic variables (temperature and precipitation) on sorghum productivity in the Cercle of Koutiala in Mali. To do this, the model of the production function was used to estimate the variation of sorghum yield during a period of 30 years (1986-2015). After the test of the unit root of Dickey-Fuller Augmented (ADF), the estimation of the semi-logarithmic model by the Ordinary Least Square method (OLS) showed that the yield of sorghum was affected by the climatic variables. The increase in average rainfall over the period June-September positively affects the performance to a certain threshold. On the other hand, the average temperatures during June-July have no significant effects on the yield. The temperatures observed during August and September, negatively affect the performance of sorghum during the study period to a certain threshold. The precipitations of August and September have a positive impact but not significant on the yield. The interaction between mean precipitation and average temperature during the same period negatively influences the yield of the sorghum. Indeed, the increase of the precipitation combined with an increase of the temperature for the period June to September causes a reduction in the yield of sorghum. Depending on this situation, it is important and necessary to take measures to mitigate the negative impacts of climate on sorghum yield in the Cercle of Koutiala.</p> Diakalidia Kouyate ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 68 79 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1230490 Social Media as Valuable Anti-Corruption Assets in the Public Sphere in Nigeria <p>The issue of corruption in Nigeria has assumed a monumental dimension in such a way that it has become a household song and practice. Thus, adopting a rhetoric definition may not be appropriate instead a succinct description will suffice. The dimension of corruption is monumental because it started from pre-independence in the First republic with the first major political figure found culpable and investigated in 1944 and reach its peak recently with the evolvement of ‘godfatherism’ in the political landscape of the country. Therefore, corruption in Nigeria is more or less a household name. Using Social Responsibility Media Theory as a guide, this paper undertakes an examination of the right of the media to inform the public, serve the political system by making information, discussion and consideration of public affairs generally accessible, and to protect the rights of the individual by acting as watchdog over the governments. This discourse analysis is backed up with the presentation of documented materials on tracking corruption through the use of social media. Since the use of mainstream media only is disadvantageous owing to its demand-driven nature, social media stands as a veritable and result-orientated asset in tracking corruption across the public sphere. This paper found that complimented with mainstream media, social media and civic journalism have exposed corrupt tendencies of contractors and public office holders including the political class in the provision and handling of infrastructural development projects thereby make public officials accountable and create an open access to good governance.</p> B. Babasanya L. Ganiyu U. F. Yahaya O. E. Olagunju S. O. Olafemi Amamat A. Olorukooba T. O. Ademola G. O. Oladele ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 1 10 10.9734/ajaees/2020/v38i1230481