Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES <p><strong>Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics &amp; Sociology (ISSN: 2320-7027)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Agricultural Extension, Economics &amp; Sociology research’. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US contact@journalajaees.com (Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociolo) contact@journalajaees.com (Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociolo) Wed, 23 Aug 2023 09:33:07 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.12 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 A Review of Millet Crops for Agricultural Sustainability in India https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2162 <p>A major issue in India is the sustainability of agriculture due to population expansion, climate change, and mounting demands on natural resources. This review paper explores how millet crops might help India's agriculture become more sustainable. A family of small-seeded grains known as millets has been cultivated for millennia and has various distinctive qualities that make them appropriate for sustainable farming methods. The paper looks at the advantages of growing millet from an environmental, economic, and social standpoint, as well as the difficulties and potential solutions for their broad adoption. Additionally, millet contributes to improved soil health, water resource conservation, mitigation against climate change, and strengthening rural communities. The review's conclusions underscore the important part millet crops can play in achieving agricultural sustainability and offer suggestions for how politicians, academics, and farmers should encourage the development of millet crops.</p> Neha Dwivedi , Veena Rathore , Kiran Sharma Copyright (c) 2023 Dwivedi et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2162 Fri, 08 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact of Social Media on Agricultural Youth: Empowering the Next Generation in India https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2167 <p>Agriculture has evolved significantly over the centuries, with the role of agricultural youth playing a crucial role in shaping the future. These young individuals, aged 18 to 35, represent energy, innovation, and potential in the sector. Engaging them in agriculture is vital for food security, economic development, and sustainable rural livelihoods Social media has become a powerful tool for agricultural youth, empowering them to disseminate knowledge and facilitate continuous learning. Platforms like YouTube, Instagram, and Facebook have become repositories of agricultural expertise, providing resources on diverse topics like sustainable farming practices and precision agriculture techniques. Online communities, like the "Young Farmers" subreddit, foster a culture of collaborative learning. Social media's networking potential brings agricultural youth closer together, enhancing opportunities for collaboration, knowledge exchange, and cross-border agricultural projects. Platforms like Twitter and LinkedIn enable young farmers and enthusiasts to connect with experts, researchers, and peers worldwide. Social media also serves as a cost-effective avenue for marketing and promotion, enabling farmers to showcase their produce and interact with potential customers. Social media has also played a pivotal role in raising awareness about agricultural issues and advocating for sustainable practices, climate resilience, and policies supporting smallholder farmers. The fusion of technology and agriculture has spurred innovation and entrepreneurial ventures, with platforms like YouTube attracting investors and collaborators. Examples like "Aerofarms" demonstrate how social media can amplify the impact of agricultural innovation.</p> Shani Gulaiya , Ramawtar Yadav , D. R. K. Saikanth , Gagan Tripathi , Akanksha Sharma , Martina Meinam , Anoop Shukla Copyright (c) 2023 Gulaiya et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2167 Mon, 11 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Fifth Industrial Revolution in Agricultural Sciences https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2140 <p>The “Type of Article” of this paper is “Letter to the Editor”. This paper discuses about: “The Fifth Industrial Revolution in Agricultural Sciences”. No formal abstract is available. Readers are requested to read the full article.</p> Manuel E. Cortés Copyright (c) 2023 Cortés; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2140 Sat, 26 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Determinants of Participation of Members in Farmer Producer Organization in Madurai District https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2133 <p><strong>Aims:</strong> The study aimed to identify the factors influencing the participation of members in FPO.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> The study has utilized random sampling method to identify sample districts, sample blocks, sample villages and sample respondents for interview.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The study was carried out in Madurai district of Tamil Nadu in the month of May 2023.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Primary data was used in the study. Logit regression model was used to identify the factors influencing the participation of members in FPO. A well-structured interview schedule was used to collect data from the sample respondents. A sample of 60 members and 60 non-members of FPO were chosen at random and relevant data were collected.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The estimates of the logit regression function revealed that family size, annual income, landholding, distance to market, extension service, marketing facilities and input availability were found to be the major factors influencing the participation of members in FPO and found significant. Of these variables, family size, annual income, distance to market, extension service, marketing facilities storage facilities and input availability were positively influencing the probability of participation of members in FPO programme. However, farm size was negatively influencing the probability of participation of members in FPO.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Based on the analysis, it is evident that the variables such as family size, annual income, distance to market, extension service, marketing facilities and storage facilities were found significant and positively influencing the probability of participation of sample respondents in FPO programme. However, the variable namely farm size was found to be significant but negatively influencing the probability of participation of sample respondents in FPO programme. It is also evident that the probability of participation of small and marginal farmers in FPO is found high. It is concluded that provision of services by FPOs such as training and capacity building programme, marketing facility, supply of inputs, transport arrangements to the farmer may increase their participation in FPO.</p> P. Yogitha , M. Anjugam , J. S. Amarnath , S. Padma Rani, B. Sivasankari Copyright (c) 2023 Yogitha et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2133 Wed, 23 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Drivers of Food Security amongst Plantain Producing Households in Edo State, Nigeria https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2134 <p>The agricultural sector in many countries continues to be plagued with diverse challenges which often tend to affect agricultural yield, thus posing a threat to food security. This reduced yield has the potential to pose a threat to achieving global food security. Due to the high occurrence of food insecurity, many households are devising strategies through which they can cope with the adverse effect of food insecurity. This study assessed the factors driving food security among plantain-producing households in Edo State, Nigeria. Primary data was collected in 120 plantain-producing households using a multi-stage random sampling technique and analyzed using the food security index and logit regression model. The households’ food security status was estimated at N555 (approx. $1), based on a daily minimum food bundle of 2260 kcal. The study showed that 46.7% of households were food insecure. The regression analysis for factors influencing food security revealed that older household heads tend to be more food insecure as compared to their younger counterpart. With a positive relationship between farm size and food security, the likelihood of being food secure increases with farm size increase. Similarly, female-headed households are more likely to be food secure. To cope with food insecurity, households have used coping strategies which include eating less of their preferred food, limiting the portion of food, and skipping meals.</p> Ozor, Patience Lilian , B. B. Phillip , A. A. Sanusi Copyright (c) 2023 Ozor et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2134 Wed, 23 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Identifying the Factors Influencing the Performance of the Farmer Producer Organizations Dealing with Value Addition https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2135 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>Identifying the factors influencing the performance of the Farmer Producer Organizations dealing with value addition.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>Exploratory research design.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>The research was carried out in the state of Tamil Nadu. Primary data was collected from a random sample of respondents.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The study was conducted in the state of Tamil Nadu which examines the factors that influencing the performance of the FPOs dealing with the value-added products. The data was collected from 60 FPOs through random selection process, the sample respondents were CEOs and Board of Directors of the FPOs. Personal interview was taken to gather primary data. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to find the factors that influence the performance of the FPOs dealing with value added products in Tamil Nadu.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>This study identifies that the cumulative variance accounted for by the study amounted to 56.606 percent, the factors exerting substantial influence encompass Innovative Product Development, Integration of E-Commerce, Strategic Product Pricing, Establishment of Collaborative Partnerships, Emphasis on Distinctive Branding &amp; Packaging, Advancements in Processing Facilities, and Assurance of Product Quality. Furthermore, factors like Augmented Market Access, Effective Management of Demand-Supply Dynamics, Optimization of Inventory Holding, Accomplishments in Certification, Efficient Handling of Working Capital, and Access to Credit and Financial Support were determined to have a moderate level of influence. Lastly, factors contributing to the enhancement of Turnover Rates, Incorporation of Valuable Customer Feedback, and Pioneering Product Development were identified as having a lower degree of influence</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>From the study it can be concluded that operational factors are the most influencing factors for the performance of the FPO that contributes to the 36 percent of the contribution of the performance.</p> S. Kavin, M. Malarkodi , C. Muralidharan, S. R. Padma, G. Vanitha Copyright (c) 2023 Kavin et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2135 Thu, 24 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Paramparagath Krishi Vikas Yojana Scheme on the Livelihood of Beneficiaries https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2136 <p>The Indian government's Paramparagath Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY) programme has gained prominence as a key push to advance organic agricultural methods all over the nation. The study was conducted in Virudhunagar and Madurai districts of Tamil Nadu, with a sample size of 120 beneficiary respondents from the designated villages utilising census method.In-depth analysis of the scheme's effects on organic farmers is provided in this article, along with conclusions about how well it promotes sustainable agricultural practices and increases crop yields while also stimulating economic growth. The quantitative component looks at data from a variety of organic farming clusters before and after implementation of the scheme, analysing variables such changes in the farm, family, education, social contacts, income, debt, and health.The findings revealed a significant positive impact of PKVY scheme on the livelihood of organic farmers. Participating farmers have reported a gradual shift towards organic cultivation, reducing their reliance on chemical inputs and adopting eco-friendly alternatives. Notably, the PKVY scheme has led to tangible economic benefits for organic farmers.</p> J. R. Shalini, G. Selvarani, T. Dhamodaran, S. Senthilnathan, K. Prabakaran Copyright (c) 2023 Shalini et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2136 Thu, 24 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Study on Extent of Knowledge Level among Distant Learners of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2137 <p>The study on Extent of Knowledge level among distant learners of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU) was undertaken with objective to document the extent of knowledge level among the distant learners. The research design used was ex post facto. The Coconut Cultivation Technology course was purposefully selected out of the 21 certificate programmes, since it had the greatest enrollment. Students who successfully completed the Coconut Cultivation Technology certificate course from batches 2019-2021 made up the study's sample. Out of the 234 students, 130 were chosen using the proportionate random sample method. The data was gathered from the chosen students through both in-person and telephone interviews using a well-structured questionnaire. The study's findings showed that after attending the certificate course, more over half of the learners (53.85%) had medium level of knowledge on cultivation technologies. Also, it was inferred that variables including educational status, farm size, farming experience, information seeking behaviour, determinant factors, progressiveness, job aspiration, attitude towards ODL course and attitude towards entrepreneurship had positive significant relationship with the knowledge level of the learners. It is concluded that learners see distant learning as an efficient medium for education in order to increase their knowledge of agriculture technologies, which would help them improve the conditions on their farms and possible way to start a business.</p> Riyas Babu M. , Sriram N. , Balasubramaniam P. , Premavathi R. , Gangai Selvi R. Copyright (c) 2023 Babu et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2137 Fri, 25 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Study on Consumer Preference for Coconut Milk in Bangalore City https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2138 <p><strong>Aims:</strong> This study aimed to analyze consumer preferences for coconut milk, exploring association between consumer profiles and demographics. Additionally, it investigated factors that influenced buying behaviour of coconut milk consumers. The study provided insights into consumer education, income, age, and gender profiles concerning coconut milk, offering an understanding of the brands they preferred. Factor analysis revealed the forces shaping consumers' coconut milk purchase choices and brand preferences. These findings provided practical insights for refining producer and marketer strategies to meet consumer demands and enhance competitiveness in a dynamic market landscape.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Descriptive research design.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The research was carried out in Bangalore City, during July 2023, primary data was collected from a random sample of respondents.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The study specifically targeted a sample size of 60 consumers. A well-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the sample respondents. The study deployed Factor analysis to assess the factors that influence the consumer purchase Behaviour of coconut milk and priorities regarding various attributes of coconut milk.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> This study indicated that the majority of respondents were female (68.30%). The largest age group was 26-35 years (43.30%), and most respondents had an annual income of ₹6.00 lakhs - ₹8.00 lakhs (30%). About half of the respondents held Bachelor's degrees (50%), and the majority were employed (66.60%). Factor analysis provided that External perception factors comprised three factors namely Brand reputation, Availability, and Packaging with a variance of 32.378 percent that were the most influenced factors for the purchase of coconut milk by consumers.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Analyzing consumer profiles factor analysis provided vital insights for the coconut milk industry. These findings offer guidance for refining producer and marketer strategies to meet consumer demands and excel in a rapidly changing market environment. Tailoring product availability, packaging, pricing, and sustainability, in alignment with consumer preferences will effectively improve reach and meet consumer expectations in the coconut milk market.</p> V. Bowya, K. Mahendran , K. Divya , R. Parimalrangan , L. Nalina Copyright (c) 2023 Bowya et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2138 Fri, 25 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of KVK Training Programme on Knowledge and Adoption of Paddy Production Technology in Cuddalore District of Tamil Nadu, India https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2139 <p>KVK is organizing various types of training programme as one of the important mandatory activities for the benefit of the stakeholders. To know the impact of the KVK Training programme among KVK Vridhachalam trained paddy growers, the study was conducted in the Cuddalore District of Tamil Nadu. 150 Paddy growers were selected as respondents from 15 Paddy growing villages by employing simple random sampling techniques. It was found that 58.00 per cent of paddy growers had a high level of knowledge as a result of the KVK Training programme. Similarly, it was observed that the level of adoption among farmers also increased, with the number of high-level adopters increasing from 20.00 per cent to 63.33 per cent. In contrast, the number of low-level adopters decreased from 33.33 percent to 13 percent. It is concluded that paddy growers should utilize the KVK training programme periodically to update their knowledge and skill for better adoption of paddy technologies for improving productivity and income.</p> M. Bharath, N. Sriram, M. Nirmala Devi, S. R. Padma, R. Gangai Selvi Copyright (c) 2023 Bharath et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2139 Sat, 26 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Relation between Personal Profile Characteristics of the Staff and their Attitude towards the Farmer Producers Organization https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2141 <p>The present research study was carried out during 2022-2023 to know the relation between attitude towards the organization and profile characteristics of the staff of Farmer Producers Organization in Zone III (Rajanna Siricilla) of state Telangana. Ex-post facto research design was used for the study. Zone III consists of five districts namely, Karimnagar, Rajanna Siricilla, Medak, Siddipet and Kamareddy. The total number of FPOs in the zone were 66. Out of these, 40 FPOs were selected and the data was collected from 5 respondents randomly from each FPO using structured interview schedule. Thus, the total numbers of respondents were 200. The findings of the research revealed that (41.50%) of the respondents were middle aged with (38.50%) having education up to graduation, (51.00%) were having low experience of 2-5 years and (40.50%) received medium number of trainings (5-8). About two-third (65.50%) respondents had reported that medium extension activities were taken up in the organization, (41.50%) were having medium interpersonal communication, (57.00%) were having neutral&nbsp;departmental working environment, (59.50%) were having medium&nbsp;attitude towards delegation of authority and (38.50%) were having low achievement motivation. It was also reported that majority of the respondents were having medium job involvement (48.50%), medium job satisfaction (49.00%), medium perception of work load&nbsp;(40.50%) and medium job stress (52.50%). Among this variables, experience, total number of trainings received, extension activities, attitude towards delegation of authority, job involvement, job satisfaction, perception of work load&nbsp;and job stress were found to be significant with the attitude of the staff towards the organization.</p> Vavilala Priyanka , V. K. Singh , L. B. Singh , D. K. Singh , Vivek, Bhim Singh , Chandrashekar Prajapathi Copyright (c) 2023 Priyanka et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2141 Mon, 28 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Cluster Front Line Demonstrations on Productivity, Profitability and Yield Gap of Blackgram in Nellore District of Andhra Pradesh, India https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2142 <p>The Cluster Frontline Demonstrations (CFLDs) on Blackgram var. TBG-104 was conducted by Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Nellore to find out the seed yield, technological gap, extension gap, technology index and economics during 2020 to 2022 (3 years) covering 150 farmers. The result of the study revealed that the yield of blackgram was found to be 953, 1000 and 1103 kg/ha during the years 2020-21, 2021-22 and 2022-23, respectively as compared to 752, 760 and 900 kg/ha, respectively under the farmer's practice. The increase in yield over farmers practice was found to be 25.1, 33.4 and 22.6% respectively during the years 2020-21, 2021-22 and 2022-23. The 3-year average data on the technology gap, extension gap and technology index were found to be 980 kg/ha, 215 kg/ha and 49% respectively. The average net return and B:C ratio in demonstrations was found to be Rs. 27439.00 /ha and 1.79 as against Rs.13334 and 1.38 in farmer’s practice. The findings show that utilising TBG 104 over farmer’s varieties could increase the seed output of Blackgram in the Nellore district and CFLD could be a useful method to reduce yield disparities.</p> K. Kiran Kumar Reddy, M. Mallikarjun, G. L. Siva Jyothi, V. Tejaswini, S. Lokesh Babu, D. Vijay Kumar Naik Copyright (c) 2023 Reddy et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2142 Mon, 28 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Sustainability of Urban Vegetable Gardening in Tamil Nadu, India https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2143 <p>Urban vegetable gardens are being developed in many places in India and abroad. A lot of passionate urban dwellers are taking up such initiatives in their own households. A study was conducted on sustainability of Urban vegetable gardening in Tamil Nadu, India with the objective to study the nature of urban vegetable gardening and to develop strategy for sustainability of urban vegetable gardening.</p> <p>The beneficiaries of vegetable kit distribution programme and other vegetable gardeners were purposively selected.&nbsp; A total of 120 respondents was selected randomly. It was found that about 50 percent of the respondents were house wives and nearly 50 percent had garden in their terrace. Nearly 52 percent of the respondents took up gardening to avoid chemicals while 48 percent took it up as hobby. 100 percent took gardening only for household consumption, none of them had any commercial outlook on the products. Recycled products were utilized by majority of the people (58%), almost equal proportion of respondents purchased material from JDAs office, Shops, online. About 48 percent used coir pith while the remaining used soil as the medium for growth. Homemade composting and vermicompost were used by majority of the respondents to a tune of 1-5 kg per month.</p> <p>The potager scheme was very well taken by the urban dwellers in Coimbatore but it was discontinued after a year. However, it has caused a lot of awareness among them and their requirements are fulfilled by online sellers. Sustained and profitable terrace gardening requires scientific and precise calculations on inputs and time of use. Planned development in urban and peri urban areas by institutional interventions will lead to sustained and feasible projects which will contribute to the green cover and contribute to the food requirement of the urban areas.</p> Shibi Sebastian , Anuratha A., Ravi G. , Sri Vara Buddhi Bhuvaneswari , P. Ahila Devi Copyright (c) 2023 Sebastian et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2143 Mon, 28 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Social Change in the Kampung Sejahtera Village of Medan City, Indonesia https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2144 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>This study aims to analyze the social changes that have taken place in Kampung Sejahtera, Medan City, Indonesia. This social change was motivated by the community's desire to change the bad stigma attached to this area which is synonymous with drug trafficking, prostitution, gambling and other criminal acts into a village that is safe, comfortable, beautiful, prosperous and livable.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>This study was conducted in Kampung Sejahtera, Medan City, Indonesia. The research started from May 2022 to July 2023</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This study uses a qualitative approach. This qualitative approach was chosen to find out how social changes have occurred in the people living in the Prosperous Village of Medan City. The type of study used in this study is a case study. In simple terms, the case study in this study is defined as a process of in-depth and detailed investigation or examination of social change events that occurred in the Prosperous Village of Medan City.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Social change in Kampung Sejahtera, Medan City, Indonesia occurs through demographic processes, economic processes, ideas and social movements that have been going on for a long time.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The social change that occurred in Kampung Sejahtera, Medan City was motivated by the people's desire to change the reputation of Kampung Kubur as a slum village and drug den inhabited by criminals to become a Prosperous Village that is safe, comfortable and conducive. The social changes that occurred in Kampung Sejahtera were generally initiated by figures from the community, government figures and the Police. The social changes that have occurred have changed the social structure that has occurred for the better. This can be seen in the reduction in drug trafficking and abuse, the creation of a better, beautiful and comfortable social environment as well as changes in the outside community's assessment of the bad reputation that was previously popular from Kampung Kubur to Kampung Sejahtera.</p> Agung Saputra , Jabal Tarik Ibrahim , Oman Sukmana , Rudianto Copyright (c) 2023 Saputra et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2144 Mon, 28 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring Fish Consumption Patterns: A Comparative Study of Urban and Rural Households in Kawardha, (Kabirdham District) Chhattisgarh, India https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2145 <p>This study examined regional differences in fish consumption patterns and their correlation with household characteristics in the Kawardha block of Chhattisgarh, India. The study explored various aspects of fish consumption, including occupation, monthly income and expenditure, consumption frequency, species preference, factors influencing fish consumption, and constraints faced by fish consumers. A survey was conducted with 100 respondents (50 households from each region), randomly selected. The collected data were analysed using frequency and percentage and the findings revealed that rural households consumed more fish compared to urban households, with Rohu (<em>Labeo rohita</em>) emerging as the preferred fish species in both regions. The majority of consumers in both rural (45.25%) and urban areas (62.5%) preferred to consume fish once a week. The High Income group (HIG) urban households (82.75%) and low-income group (LIG) rural households (88.23%) were the primary fish consumers. The study also observed that households with a heavy occupational lifestyle consumed more fish (68%) in rural areas, whereas households with a sedentary occupational lifestyle consumed more fish in urban areas (44%). Factors influencing fish consumption were found to be the price and quality of fish. Constraints faced by fish consumers included concerns about hygiene and the availability of desired fish sizes. Various reasons were identified for the reluctance to consume fish, such as the presence of bones, religious beliefs, and sensory preferences. Understanding the regional disparities in fish consumption patterns and the associated household characteristics can guide targeted interventions for promoting sustainable and healthy fish consumption practices in both rural and urban areas. This knowledge can contribute to the development of strategies to address constraints and improve fish consumption habits, leading to better nutrition and overall well-being of inhabitants of both regions.</p> B. Nightingale Devi , Aishwarya Sahu , Doman Nirmalkar , Chandramukhi Paikra , Roshmi Sahu Copyright (c) 2023 Devi et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2145 Tue, 29 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing the Changes in Consumption Patterns of Households Due to COVID-19 Measures in Kenya https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2146 <p>This article assessed the changes in household consumption patterns due to COVID-19 interventions in Kenya. COVID-19 measures brought about several challenges globally. The COVID-19 pandemic impacted many elements of people's lives, including their financial well-being. Households had to adapt their buying patterns and food consumption patterns to cope with the new economic realities due to COVID-19 measures in Kenya, such as a ban on social gatherings, closure of institutions, and movement restrictions through lockdowns and curfews. The descriptive approach was used in the study, which used a cross-sectional survey using a structured questionnaire to collect data from 246 households. Results revealed that household intake of meat, dairy, fruits, snacks, and wheat products decreased significantly (p-values &lt;0.001). Findings also demonstrated a substantial drop in the frequency of shopping for pre-packaged meals, snacks, and meat products (p-values &lt;0.001) and a significant rise in the frequency of shopping for vegetables and wheat products (p-values &lt;0.001) and fruits (p-values &lt;0.05). This paper suggests that policies be designed to enable city dwellers to acquire, purchase, prepare, and consume food during a crisis to provide healthier and more sustainable consumption patterns.</p> Kelvin Mungai , Dickson Okello , Florence Opondo Copyright (c) 2023 Mungai et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2146 Tue, 29 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Study on Consumer Profile and Preference for Virgin Coconut Oil in Bangalore City https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2147 <p><strong>Aim: </strong>This research endeavors to examine the fundamental factors driving consumer preferences and actions concerning Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) in Bangalore City. It seeks to assess the impact of demographic variables, health perspectives, and brand recognition on consumer choices and behavior toward VCO.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> A quantitative, descriptive research design.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The research was carried out in Bangalore City, during June and July of 2023. The primary data were collected from a random sample of Sixty respondents.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A diverse group of participants were surveyed, spanning different age groups, educational backgrounds, and occupations. The survey encompassed aspects such as age, gender, education, occupation, income, and family size. Conjoint analysis facilitated the measurement of attribute importance scores, providing insights into consumer preferences for factors including price, brand, and health benefits.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Analysis of the collected data unveiled noteworthy trends The majority of the respondents (61.7%) were males, and a significant proportion (43.3%) held master's degrees. Employed individuals constituted the largest occupation category (58%). Conjoint analysis revealed that health benefits held the highest importance score (39.979), followed by price (37.011) and brand (23.010).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study accentuates the pronounced role of health benefits in driving consumer choices regarding VCO. The findings illuminated the demographics of VCO consumers in Bangalore City and emphasize the need for targeted marketing strategies aligned with health-conscious consumer preferences. Insights gained from this research can significantly guide product development and branding initiatives, fostering a competitive advantage in this potential market. Further exploration and validation of these predictors are warranted to enhance the efficacy of marketing strategies and cater effectively to the evolving consumer landscape.</p> Dijendragowda S. P. , K. Mahendran , S. Hemalatha , C. Muralidharan , R. Pangayar Selvi Copyright (c) 2023 Dijendragowda et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2147 Tue, 29 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Attitude of Farm Youths towards Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in Coimbatore District of Tamil Nadu https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2148 <p>The agricultural sector holds significant importance in India and stands to gain substantial benefits from the integration of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Therefore, it is crucial to encourage widespread adoption of Information Technologies (IT) solutions at the grassroot level to facilitate the dissemination of technological advancements. The primary focus of the research was centered around the attitude of farm youths towards Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu. Ex-post facto research design of social research was used in this present study, as the phenomenon has already taken place. Proportionate random sampling method was used to select 120 Farm youths from the four selected Blocks of Coimbatore district. The findings revealed that a predominant majority of farm youths (70.83%) held a favourable attitude towards ICTs, while a smaller percentage (08.33%) exhibited a highly favourable attitude, and the remaining group (20.83%) displayed a less favourable attitude towards ICT. The outcomes from the multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the collective influence of all thirteen independent variables accounted for 52.80 per cent of the overall variability in farm youths' attitudes towards ICT. Factors such as interaction with extension agencies, achievement orientation and decision making all played a notable role in fostering a more favourable disposition towards attitude regarding Information and Communication Technology (ICT).</p> M. Dhanush , P. P. Murugan , N. Anandaraja , A. Janaki Rani, Patil Santosh Ganapati Copyright (c) 2023 Dhanush et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2148 Tue, 29 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Organic Cultivation on the Livelihood Changes of Farmers https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2149 <p>The study mainly focuses on the livelihood changes among organic farmers those who adopted the organic cultivation practises. The study was carried out in Erode district of Tamil Nadu in all the 14 blocks, with a sample size of 140 respondents of certified organic farmers were selected by adopting simple random sampling method is used. The Quantitative components examine a data from various certified organic farmers before and after organic cultivation, the livelihood variables is found in five capitals such as human capital, social capital, financial capital, physical capital, and natural capital. For determining the livelihood capitals of organic farmers “Z test “was used. The findings infer that there is a significant positive change in the livelihood of farmers from the cultivation of crops (Sugarcane, Banana, Turmeric, Brinjal, Chilli, and Tomato) after the intervention of organic farming practices. So, the adoption of organic agricultural practices has contributed for the livelihood changes among the certified organic farmers.&nbsp;</p> Dhasbega Dhagashine S. , Velusamy R., Ramakrishnan K., Jegadeesan M., Prabakaran K. Copyright (c) 2023 Dhagashine et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2149 Tue, 29 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Perception of Veterinarians towards Consequences and Suitability of Sex Sorted Semen Technology https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2150 <p>An ex-post-facto exploratory research study was carried out in the state of Andhra Pradesh with the specific objective to know the perception of the veterinarians towards consequences and suitability of sex-sorted semen technology. These consequences include Desirable vs Undesirable, Anticipated vs Unanticipated, Direct vs Indirect and in addition suitability was also assessed in terms of sustainability, compatibility, socio-cultural and economic aspects. It was found that three-fourths of the veterinarians (76.67%) had a medium level of perception towards sex-sorted semen technology in terms of its consequences and suitability to dairy farmers. The study thus, reveals that innovations that are compatible and in accordance with farmers’ situations will be adopted following its diffusion. Consequences and suitability also need to be taken care of while diffusing any innovation among the farming community.</p> Nallapati Sai Anjana , B. Subrahmanyeswari , Triveni, R. Vinoo Copyright (c) 2023 Anjana et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2150 Wed, 30 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Production, Import and Export Trend of the Mushroom Industry in India https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2151 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The aim of this study is to analyze and present the production, import, and export trends within the mushroom industry in India. By examining these key aspects, the study intends to provide insights into the dynamics of the Indian mushroom market and its engagement with global trade, thereby contributing to a comprehensive understanding of the industry's growth and potential.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>The data for the study was collected from official records, databases, and relevant sources that provide information on mushroom production, import, and export. The duration of the study spanned 25 years, covering historical data from the past two and a half decades.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: T</strong>his study scrutinized India's mushroom industry dynamics. Data from official records and literature sources were gathered to assess growth potential, especially in Button mushrooms. A 25-year timeframe (1997-2021) was analyzed using Compounded Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) to decipher production, import, and export patterns.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>India's mushroom sector thrives due to conducive factors like resources and domestic demand. 2021 witnessed 243 metric tons of production. The study analyzed the growth trend and reveal a favorable upswing in mushroom production for India and Tamil Nadu, However unfavorable downward trend was found in both the import and export of mushrooms in India, as indicated by the Compounded Annual Growth Rate analysis.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Mushroom cultivation is simple yet profitable because it only needs a little expertise and is a highly valuable enterprise. The potential to increase mushroom cultivation across the nation is vast. Strengthening the mushroom industry could be one of the sustainable solutions for developing the rural economy, considering the country's limited land resources, excess population, and unemployment rate. It would also extend the range of business and job opportunities available in semi-urban and rural places.</p> <p>Enhanced strategies are necessary to boost exports and tap into this sector's full potential, aligning with the ascending production trend.</p> Arunachalam A., N. Venkatesa Palanichamy, A. Rohini, M. Kalpana, E. Parameswari, D. Muruganandhi Copyright (c) 2023 Arunachalam et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2151 Thu, 31 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Economic Analysis of Marketing Channel of Wheat Production in Hardoi District of Western Uttar Pradesh, India https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2152 <p>Wheat, a vital global staple, has been cultivated since ancient times, nourishing over a billion people. Its role in agriculture and food security is crucial. In Uttar Pradesh's Hardoi district, the Bharkhani block was chosen for its extensive wheat cultivation, and five villages were randomly selected. Three wheat distribution channels were studied: Producer - Consumer Producer - Village Trader - Consumer Producer - Village Trader - Wholesaler - Retailer - Consumer Findings revealed that in Channels I, II, and III, producers' shares in consumer expenses were 98.63%, 92.14%, and 73.78%, respectively. Marketing costs were Rs. 20.00, Rs. 53.00, and Rs. 73.78 per quintal, with middlemen's margins of Rs. 00.00, Rs. 69.00, and Rs.</p> <p>196.00 per quintal in Channels II and III.&nbsp;&nbsp; Channel I stood out as the most efficient due to its lack of middlemen, highlighting its potential to optimize wheat distribution.</p> Shiv Kumar, Hargovind Bhargava, Pukhraj Singh , Joginder Singh , Sachin Kumar Verma Copyright (c) 2023 Kumar et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2152 Fri, 01 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Study on Predicting the Price of Coconut in Tamil Nadu Market https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2153 <p><strong>Aims:</strong> The study aims to comprehensively analyze coconut cultivation trends in Tamil Nadu, covering area, production, yield, and market prices. Through data analysis, it seeks to reveal historical shifts in cultivation practices. The study also strives to develop precise price forecasting models for Coimbatore and Pollachi markets, enhancing insights into agricultural dynamics and enabling accurate price predictions.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong>&nbsp; Exploratory research design.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The present study was conducted in the year 2023 during July and August</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Secondary data was used for the present study.&nbsp; Secondary Data on area , production and productivity of coconut in Tamil Nadu was collected from 2000 to 2022 and price of coconut from 2012 to 2023 in selected market was collected. The research utilizes Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) Analysis to identify the past trends in the area, production, and productivity of coconut in Tamil Nadu. Additionally, the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models are employed to forecast the future trens in coconut price in Coimbatore and Pollachi market.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Area, Production and Productivity of coconut in Tamilnadu has shown a positive trend. Coconut cultivation is growing steadily with a 1.56% increase in cultivation area and a 2.089% rise in production, while productivity is also improving by 1.19% annually, indicating positive growth. ARIMA (1, 1, 1) for Coconut in the Coimbatore market and ARIMA (1, 1, 1) for coconut in the Pollachi market was found to provide the best fit for predicting the price of coconut in both markets.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Increase in trend in area, production and productivity was observed in Tamil Nadu. ARIMA (1, 1, 1) was found to provide the best fit for predicting the price of coconut in both markets. The model predicted declining price in the forthcoming months (August – September, 2023). Increased area under cultivation and increased production of coconut in all the major growing States are the major reasons for declining prices. Efforts have to be made to increase the consumption of coconut value added products to sustain the price of coconut in the coming years.</p> S. P. Ahalya, D. Murugananthi, A. Rohini, R. Parimala Devi, M. Kalpana Copyright (c) 2023 Ahalya et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2153 Fri, 01 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Resource Use Efficiency and Constraints in the Production of Direct Seeded Rice in Haryana, India https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2154 <p>The present study was conducted during 2022-23 in three districts namely, Kurukshetra, Karnal and Yamunanagar in Haryana with the objective to analyse the resource use efficiency and constraints in the production of direct seeded rice (DSR). To achieve the objective of the study Cob-Douglas production function technique was used. The result of the study revealed that inputs like machine labour and irrigation in direct seeded basmati paddy and seed, human labour and irrigation in direct seeded non-basmati paddy were greater than one indicating underuse of these resources. The seed, chemical fertilizers and human labour in direct seeded basmati paddy while chemical fertilizers and machine labour in direct seeded non-basmati paddy were less than one which indicated the overuse of these inputs. As DSR technology is a water, labour and energy saving practice, it needs to be popularized among the farmers by offering viable solutions the problems faced by the rice growers. Weed infestation and management, iron deficiency, non-availability of DSR drill and difficulty in land preparation were the major problems faced by the farmers in the production of DSRs which warrant appropriate remedial solutions.</p> Sumit, D. P. Malik, Neeraj Pawar Copyright (c) 2023 Sumit et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2154 Mon, 04 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Marketing Efficiency of Cocoon in Salem District of Tamil Nadu, India https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2155 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The aim of this study is to assess the marketing efficiency of cocoon within the study area and to examine marketing challenges, subsequently proposing effective strategies to address these constraints.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>Exploratory research design.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The research was carried out in the Salem districtof Tamil Nadu. During the month of July 2022, primary data was collected from a random sample of respondentsThe study examines cocoon production costs, returns, efficiency and marketing challenges. Data was collected from four blockswhichincludesOmalur, Mecheri, Attur, and Edappadi, thus comprising the total sample of140 respondents which includes112 farmers and 28 dealers. Personal interviews was conducted to gather primary data, Acharya’s technique is employed to calculate marketing efficiency and Garrett's Ranking Method was used to assess marketing constraints.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>This study identifies that Acharya's marketing channel shows a nil net marketing margin, yet boasts 95.61 percentefficiency. Farmers receive a net price of ₹ 395.86, obtained by deducting marketing costs from the ultimate consumer price. Constraints faced by Salem's cocoon growers includes high transportation cost, price fluctuations in cocoon market, and trader scarcity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study insist to maintain the minimum standard price for cocoon to mitigate price fluctuations, enhancing transportation infrastructure for bulk transport, and ensuring prompt and consistent payments. The successful implementation of these strategies holds the potential to facilitate the cocoon industry's progress and resilience in the face of constraints.</p> V. Mohanavannan, N. Deepa, R. Balaji, A. Vidhyavathi, R. Ravikumar Copyright (c) 2023 Mohanavannan et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2155 Mon, 04 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Study on Promotional Strategy of Syngenta Product Amistar in Hoshiarpur District of Punjab, India https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2156 <p>Bases on information gathered from 176 respondents, a study carried out in the Hoshiarpur area of Punjab state discovered numerous Amistar fungicide promotional methods. The study's main goal was to determine how best to market fungicide to farmers. It is revealed that out of total respondent’s major number falls under the age group of 30- 50 years that is 94 respondents, and it was found land holding has a direction relation between the income level of the respondents and also the education level. The study showed that respondents gave the primary preference to Amistar Fungicide of by Syngenta Market potential is the maximum amount of sales that might be available to all the firms in a pesticide industry during a given period, under a given level of pesticide industry marketing efforts and environmental conditions. Grain crops is the major crop in Mukerian Block in which Amistar is used for use, so the market potential is calculated considering Maize crop acreage.</p> <p>when it comes the preferred promotional tools, the response was in the favour of farmer meeting. Demonstration, company’s person visit, wall postering, literature display, phone call, van campaign were ranked second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh respectively. The response was in the favour of billboards with a total number of 57(32.40%) followed by the television, radio and social media. Other sources were television, radio, newspaper and social media.</p> Ranjeet Singh Kumawat, Nitin Barker Copyright (c) 2023 Kumawat and Barker; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2156 Mon, 04 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Comprehensive Analysis of the Livelihood Index among Millet Farmers Associated with Farmers Producer Organizations (FPOs) in Madurai District of Tamil Nadu https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2157 <p>This study conducted in 2022 across the Sedapatti, Thirumangalam, and Usilampatti Blocks of Madurai District in Tamil Nadu, aimed to explore the Livelihood Index among Millet Farmers associated with Farmers Producer Organizations (FPOs). Employing a sample size of 120 respondents through a proportionate random selection procedure, data collection was facilitated via structured personal interviews. The study unveiled that a majority of respondents (68.33%) exhibited a medium level of livelihood, characterized by access to all five capitals - Natural Capital, Physical Capital, Human Capital, Social Capital, and Financial Capital. Moreover, 19.16% reported a high level of livelihood, while 12.05% experienced a low level, This distribution underscores the varying degrees of resource accessibility among the surveyed individuals, shedding light on the diversity of livelihood conditions within the studied population. The study's findings emphasize that the elevated livelihoods of millet farmers and members of Farmers Producer Organizations (FPOs) are strongly linked to their access to natural capital resources. It becomes evident that there is a notable requirement for improvement, particularly concerning financial capital, followed by social capital and human capital. The enhancement of these aspects holds the potential to empower respondents to efficiently harness the available capitals, thus fostering sustainable livelihoods. This suggests that strategic efforts towards bolstering financial resources, social networks, and individual capabilities are key to optimizing livelihood outcomes in the context of millet farming and FPO engagement.</p> R. Senthamizh, L. Nirmala, M. Jegadeesan, R. Velusamy, K. Ramakrishnan, K. Prabakaran Copyright (c) 2023 Senthamizh et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2157 Mon, 04 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Socio-economic Impact of Farm Mechanization on the Regional Economy of South India: Case of Paddy Farmers of Trichy, Tamil Nadu https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2158 <p>Farm mechanisation has a potential to improve the efficiency, productivity and cost-effective paddy cultivation while reducing the labour-intensive traditional methods which hinders timely farm operations. This study aims to analyse effect of farm mechanization on socio-economic condition of the farmers of Cauvery Delta Zone in Trichy district of Tamil Nadu. Based on the access to canal water, urbanisation and availability of non-farm opportunity, four blocks in Trichy district were selected. Two villages from each block were randomly selected. Fifty respondents from two villages and fifty-five respondents from two villages (total 210) randomly selected and data collected through personal interviews. Results revealed that majority of the paddy farmers (67%) with medium usage of machinery followed by (18%) of high level of utilization and (15%) with low level of utilization of machineries. In addition, the impact of mechanization studied under four components namely, crop specific, labour, social and economic impact and the results have clearly exhibited significant positive impact on paddy cultivators.</p> S. P. Kamali , M. Jegadeesan , R. Velusamy, K. Ramakrishnan , K. Prabakaran Copyright (c) 2023 Kamali et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2158 Tue, 05 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring Household Wood Preferences among Consumers in Coimbatore https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2159 <p><strong>Aims:</strong> This study aims to comprehensively investigate and analyze the factors that shape consumer preferences for various types of wood in the context of household applications in Coimbatore. By delving into the intricate dynamics that guide wood selection for domestic purposes, the research seeks to identify the underlying drivers that influence consumer choices. Through a meticulous examination of factors such as material versatility, eco-friendliness, aesthetic appeal, and material uniqueness, the study aims to provide a nuanced understanding of the key determinants that significantly impact the preferences of consumers when it comes to selecting specific wood varieties for furniture, decor, and other household uses. By shedding light on these preferences, the research aims to contribute valuable insights that can aid businesses, manufacturers, and policymakers in tailoring their products and strategies to better align with the evolving demands and preferences of consumers in the Coimbatore region.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong>&nbsp; Exploratory research design.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The present study was conducted in the year 2023 during June and July</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The data were collected from 120 consumers in Coimbatore city using snowball sampling and Convenience sampling will be used to select the respondents for the present study with the help of a well-structured interview schedule used to scale the factors. To analyze the data using factor analysis to identify the main factors that influence consumers’ preference for wood such as availability, price, durability, appearance, eco-friendliness, and personal preference.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Factors analysis provides that material excellence factors which comprise four factors versatile and modifiable, eco-friendly, aesthetic appeal, and uniqueness of material with a variance of 63.770 percent were the most influenced factors for preference for wood.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In conclusion, this study employed factor analysis to discern the key determinants shaping consumers' wood preferences. The analysis revealed that material excellence, encompassing factors related to versatility, eco-friendliness, aesthetic appeal, and material uniqueness, accounted for a significant variance of 63.770 percent in influencing wood preference. These findings emphasize the paramount importance of considering factors beyond traditional attributes like availability, price, and durability, and highlight the significance of holistic material qualities in shaping individuals' choices in wood selection.</p> K. Dharanidharan , S. Selvanayaki , K. Divya , R. Ravikumar , S. Varadha Raj Copyright (c) 2023 Dharanidharan et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2159 Wed, 06 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Study on Snacking Behaviour and Pattern of Working and Non-Working Women of Hisar City, India https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2160 <p>The present study was conducted to assess and compare the snacking behavior of working and non-working women of Hisar City. The aim of the present study was to compare snacking behavior of working and non-working women of Hisar City. For this study, a sample of one hundred and twenty women in age 25-45 years, 60 each working and non-working women were drawn randomly from Hisar city. The sample of working women included 20 each engineer, advocates, and teaching professionals. Non-working women were selected having an income, and age similar to their counterparts. Information on snacking behavior like the preference for snacks over regular meals, time and place of snacking, types of snacks taken, and source of procuring snacks, etc. were recorded in the questionnaire. The data indicated that mere 15 percent of working and 23.3 percent of non-working women preferred snacks over regular meals. The majority (90.0%) of respondents preferred to take salty snacks followed by sweet (85.0%) and sweet and salty (56.7%). The result revealed that non-working women have more cravings for snacks than working women but they prefer more of homemade snacks to outside snacks.</p> Nisha Rani, Geeta Copyright (c) 2023 Rani and Geeta; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2160 Thu, 07 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Livelihood Security of Livestock Farmer Producer Groups (Women Self Help Groups) in Telangana State https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2161 <p>Livestock Farmer Producer Group is the primary organization of women members from existing SHGs involved in livestock rearing of sheep/goat, dairy animals or poultry. These groups shall be formed either in the same habitation or village and Livestock Farmer Producer Organisations at mandal/district/state level. The present aim is to identify the “Livelihood security of Livestock Farmer Producer Groups (women Self Help Groups) in Telangana state” was conducted in Sidddipet and Nagarkurnool districts 10 LFPGs were selected randomly from each district and from each group 6 members were selected thus a total of 120 members constituted the respondents of the study. The information was elucidated from respondents with help of a pre structured schedule through descriptive research design which was processed, analysed and interpreted. In the present study livelihood security was assessed by food security, health security, economic security, habitat security, educational security and social network security. In food security, the majority of the respondents depend upon the public distribution system, had three meals per day. Regarding health security, the majority of respondents fell ill only once or twice in a year and afford professional treatment with some difficulty. Regarding economic security, about sixty one percent of respondents have 1-2 lakh annual income and income sources are animal husbandry, agriculture and others. Educational security was concerned; the majority were educated up to metric and considered education as expensive. Regarding social network security, the majority have very strong relationships with family members and get help from them in times of distress.</p> Vani Kotha, Mallampati Srinivasa Reddy, Dhumantarao Thammi Raju, Amaravadhi Sarat Chandra Copyright (c) 2023 Kotha et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2161 Thu, 07 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Mathematical Modelling for Crop Selection Using Fuzzy Logic https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2163 <p>In today's rapidly advancing world, research in agriculture is rapidly shifting towards mathematical modeling using soft computing techniques. Modeling techniques applied in agriculture can provide valuable insights into research priorities and the fundamental interactions of the entire soil-plant-atmosphere system. By using a model to estimate the significance and impact of specific parameters, a researcher can identify the most influential factors, leading to more informed decisions.</p> <p>The primary objective of this paper is to present a decision-making tool constructed with a fuzzy logic model, designed to enhance precision and reduce ambiguity in crop selection based on available soil nutrients for better crop yields. The model is applied to five samples selected from different land areas, providing a robust and representative data set. The proposed fuzzy logic model provides a powerful tool for addressing the challenge of crop selection under conditions of uncertain and incomplete information, enabling agricultural experts to make informed decisions and optimize yields.</p> Phagun Mehta , Manju Singh Tonk , Kautiliya Chaudhary , Vikas Siwach , Anu Tonk Copyright (c) 2023 Mehta et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2163 Fri, 08 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Factors Determining Marketing of Paddy during COVID-19 Regime in Andhra Pradesh https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2164 <p>Rice is the major food crop in India. In Andhra Pradesh during COVID-19, marketing of rice was affected by many factors like lack of accessibility to market, scarcity of labour and high transportation cost which led to farmgate sales and resulted in the reduction of farmers income. Multistage sampling was used for the study. In the context of India, the state of Andhra Pradesh was selected for the study as it is one of the top grower of rice, from this state, the West Godavari district was chosen as it is the top grower of rice, followed by the selection of three mandals within the district. Further, two villages were picked from each mandal, with the criteria based on paddy cultivation area. Around 120 farmers from these selected villages were then chosen to gather essential information. Ordinal logistic regression was used to evaluate the factors determining marketing of paddy during COVID-19 using STATA software. The study revealed that non-availability of storage facility, labour scarcity and availability of transportation facility were the major factors which influenced the marketing of paddy during COVID-19 regime. Marketing of produce can be done through formation of effective Farmer Producer Organizations (FPO) by Strengthening the market linkages.</p> R. Anthony , K. Suseela , K. S. R. Paul , D. Ramesh Copyright (c) 2023 Anthony et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2164 Fri, 08 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Collection and Marketing of Tendu Leaves in Rajasthan, India https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2165 <p>Tendu <em>(Diospyros melanoxylon </em>Roxb.) belong to the Family Ebenaceae, which is endemic to the Indian subcontinent. Locally, it is known as temburini. The leaves obtained from <em>Diospyros melanoxylon</em>, vernacularly known as ‘tendu’, ‘kendu’, ‘abnus’ or ‘bidi’ are the most extensively collected both for local consumption and for export. Tribal people in the nation have the right to gather, protect, and promote forest resources under the Forest Rights Act. As tendu leaves are the main source of money for a sizable population that depends on collecting forest food, it is also known as "green gold" in tribal areas. The harvesting of tendu leaves provides work for 75 lakh (7.5 million) individuals nationwide for around three months, according to data from the Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India. The State Government determines the collection fees per typical bag of 1000 bundles (50 leaves/bundle), or 50,000 leaves/ bag, which are to be given to tendu leaves collecting labour. Tendu Patta collection &amp; trade is controlled by the Rajasthan Tendu Leaves (Regulation of Trade) Act, 1974 and rules made there under called Rajasthan Tendu Leaves (Regulation of Trade) Rules, 1974. In the districts of Pratapgarh, Banswara, Udaipur, Dungarpur, Pali, Baran, Bhilwara, Jhalawar, and Dholpur, among others, tendu leaves are mostly harvested. In the summer, both locals and tribal members gather these leaves. Aside from this, over 30 lakh (3 million) people rely on creating bidis from these leaves for their living. In the year 2021–2022, 317206 bags were sold, generating a total of ₹4069 lakhs in revenue. The analysis showed a stagnant but significant growth both in production and revenue generated from tendu leaves. Assured reserve prices and bonuses for labourers will help in increasing the revenue from tendu leaves as it will give impetus to labourers.</p> Akash Mhaskey , Urmila B. Dhake , Kavita Goyal , Diksha Bohra , Shivangi Upadhyay , Mukesh Meena , Girdhari L. Meena Copyright (c) 2023 Mhaskey et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2165 Sat, 09 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Price Transmission in Vertical Markets: An Empirical Analysis of Red Gram https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2166 <p>Price transmission provides insight into vertical and horizontal integration of agricultural markets this will help in producer and consumer welfare. We have examined price transmission process between wholesale and retail markets by adopting Error correction model (ECM). This study has taken case of Red gram (<em>Cajanuscajan</em>) wholesale and retail markets in Bengaluru and Mumbai respectively It has used wholesale and retail prices data from secondary sources. The results revealed that retail price does not react completely to changes in producer price within one month. Dal price responds differently to seed price in its increasing and decreasing phases. Decreasing phase of seed price is associated with one lag, implying dal price to adjust slowly to seed price, say in a month’s time period. The estimated results were 0.98 in Bengaluru and 0.97 in Mumbai&nbsp; in the rising phase (ECT+) and 0.58 and 0.64&nbsp; respectively in these markets in the falling phase (ECT-), suggesting that the positive deviations of price from long-run equilibrium are reduced faster in a month’s time period than the negative deviations in Bengaluru. Both values are significant but ECT+ induces a greater change in the tur dal than ECT- in Bengaluru. Where as in Mumbai values of ECT+ and ECT- are also showing faster changes almost. This clearly explains the asymmetry in red gram seed to dal price transmission in Bengaluru and Mumbai.</p> Shivagangavva P. D. , C. P. Gracy Copyright (c) 2023 Shivagangavva and Gracy; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2166 Sat, 09 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Employment and Income Pattern of Farm Households in Northeast India: Has COVID-19 Lockdown Hindered? https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2168 <p>The COVID-19 pandemic hinders the livelihood of farm households in India. This study was conducted to measure the change in the employment and income patterns of farm households in the Imphal West district of Manipur state during the imposition of a nationwide lockdown in relation to the COVID-19 outbreak. A multistage sampling technique was used to select the districts, blocks, and villages. A simple random sampling technique without a replacement strategy was used to identify 109 farm households from two blocks in the Imphal West district of Manipur. Simple tabular analysis and statistical tests were used to examine the changes in the employment and income patterns of farm households in the Imphal West district. The study revealed that the majority of the sampled farm households (86.14%) got their employment in off-farm, non-farm, or both activities along with on-farm activities, and the rest of them (13.76%) specialized only in on-farm activities in the study area. The average number of human days employed on farms by sample households has significantly reduced from 121 to 110 human days. During the COVID-19 period, the average off-farm and non-farm employment decreased from 51 to 35 human days and from 170 to 107 human days, respectively. During COVID-19 lockdown, average yearly farm income reduced by 8.22 per cent. Similarly, the average off-farm and non-farm average income reduced by 21.67 per cent and 20.23 per cent, respectively and there was no employment was generated under Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNERGA) during COVID-19 lockdown period. The employment from private jobs and businesses was primarily disrupted during lockdown. Hence, this study proposes that efforts should be made to encourage farm households to embrace diversified employment options by giving education on several different enterprises and connecting them with specific groups such as SHG, Join Liability Group, and Farmers' Club that will assist them in coping with future economic shocks.</p> Johns Tiyndel G., S. M. Feroze , Jitender Kumar Bhatia , Pradeep A. Copyright (c) 2023 Tiyndel et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2168 Tue, 12 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Socio-economic Aspects on Women Work Force Participation Level in West Bengal, India https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2169 <p>The participation of women in the workforce is crucial for the growth and development of an economy. Women contribute a significant portion of the total workforce, accounting for forty per cent. In rural India, the participation of women in the workforce is an important factor in bringing about social change. This has had a positive impact on women's empowerment and financial inclusion, as well as the overall living standards of their families. However, due to differences in cultural norms, the acceptability of women's working status varies across different regions in India. To shed light on this issue, the present study has been conducted in West Bengal state of India. Considering the regions defined by the NSSO, the study focused on five districts, one from each region, and interviewed 400 women engaged in economic activities. The results revealed that there are significant differences in livelihood opportunities across the regions. Education level is found to be a key factor in determining occupational status, job satisfaction, and decision-making power. Moreover, service is the most acceptable working status for family members of respondents. However, the study also finds that long working hours and location of work have significant impact on the acceptance level of women's working status. Socio-cultural issues are the major predictors of women's working status. To increase women's participation in the workforce and improve their working status, it is important to provide diversified working opportunities, develop need-based skills, and increase social awareness.</p> Rituparna Paul , Arunasis Goswami, Biswajit Pal Copyright (c) 2023 Paul et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2169 Wed, 13 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Case Study on Production and Marketing Constraints of Sugarcane Farmers in Southern Tamil Nadu, India https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2170 <p>This study assesses the production and marketing constraints faced by sugarcane farmers in Southern Tamil Nadu, India. Sugarcane is an important commercial crop in India. India has emerged as one of the largest producers of sugarcane and sugar in the world with the highest number of sugar factories. India ranks second in Sugarcane production and Tamil Nadu ranks fourth. However, despite its economic importance, farmers encounter various challenges that impede their productivity and profitability. The production constraints primarily revolve around water availability, fluctuating weather patterns and pest infestations. Furthermore, pest attacks, such as the sugarcane whitefly and red rot disease, lead to yield losses and increased production costs due to the need for pest control measures. The marketing constraints predominantly pertain to inadequate infrastructure, inconsistent pricing and limited access to markets.</p> Jayanthi, M., Mareeswaran, P., Vijay Prabha, V., M. Shree Charan Copyright (c) 2023 Jayanthi et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2170 Wed, 13 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Statistical Analysis of Growth and Installation Cost of Sprinkler Irrigation System in Bikaner District of Rajasthan, India https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2171 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The aim of this study is to assess the growth and economic feasibility of sprinkler irrigation systems in water-stressed regions, specifically Rajasthan and India, to promote sustainable agriculture and mitigate water scarcity challenges.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong>&nbsp; Mixed-Methods study design.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The study analyzes time series data from 2005 to 2022 to estimate the Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) for the area under sprinkler irrigation system in Rajasthan and India. This research also investigates the economic feasibility of sprinkler irrigation systems in Bikaner district of Rajasthan, India, where water resources are limited. SPSS 16.0 was used to perform the statistical analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The findings reveal a significant growth in sprinkler-irrigated areas in both regions. The research findings reveal significant CAGR values of 27.9 per cent for Rajasthan and 18.6 per cent for India, highlighting the growing acceptance and importance of sprinkler irrigation system. The 2-inch sprinkler system emerges as the most feasible choice, with a short payback period, high net present worth, internal rate of return, and benefit-cost ratio.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The research underscores the significance of sprinkler irrigation system technologies in enhancing water-use efficiency, agricultural productivity, and rural livelihoods. Policy recommendations are provided to promote the adoption of water-efficient irrigation practices in combating water scarcity and achieving sustainable agriculture.</p> Vandana Kumari, Vikram Yogi, Shirish Sharma, P. K. Yadav, N. K. Pareek , I. P. Singh, Aravindh Kumar S. Copyright (c) 2023 Kumari et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2171 Wed, 13 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Estimation of Growth Rate in Area Production and Productivity of Watermelon in Jaipur District and Rajasthan State, India https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2172 <p>An attempt has been made in this paper to estimate the growth trends in area, production and productivity of watermelon in Jaipur district and Rajasthan state. For the present study, secondary data on area, production and productivity of watermelon in Jaipur district and Rajasthan state as a whole for the period of 8 years (2009-2010 to 2018-2019) were collected from Department of Horticulture, Pant Krishi Bhawan. The data were analyzed through growth rate, co-efficient of determination and root mean square techniques. For analysis of growth rates the exponential growth model was found the best model in this analysis. Growth rates in area, production and productivity of watermelon were estimated to be significantly negative in Jaipur district and the whole Rajasthan state for the study periods.</p> Sonu Meena , P. S. Shekhawat , Renu Kumari , Seema Kasotiya Copyright (c) 2023 Meena et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2172 Thu, 14 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Problems Faced by Farmers Using Digital Tools in Agriculture in Central Zone of India https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2173 <p>The purpose of India’s Prime Minister’s Digital India initiative was to increase the technological literacy and connect rural areas to high-speed Internet networks, which was introduced on July 1st, 2015. Digital Infrastructure as a Utility to Every Citizen, Governance &amp; Services on Demand, and Digital Empowerment of Citizens are the three key areas that make up the vision of the Digital India Programme, which seeks inclusive growth in the areas of electronic services, products, manufacturing, and job opportunities etc. The present investigation was carried out to discover the challenges faced by the Indian farmers during adopting the digital Extension and primary data were gathered in 2019-20. In Rewa district of Madhya Pradesh, where the problems in using digital tools were found to exist with the farmers. It was recorded on the basis of results of problem faced index (PFI) that Inadequate government digital service centers and facilities ranked first followed by Quality of Information, Lack of awareness towards benefits of ICT in Agriculture, Lack of knowledge on e-Agriculture, Lack of Training, Expensive to use, Inadequate ICT Experts, Lower Internet Speed and Apathy towards new were ranked second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh respectively.</p> Pooja Jena , A. S. Chauhan , A. S. Tigga , Sanjay Kumar , Meera Kumari , Subrat Kr. Behera , Fozia Homa , Manoher Saryam Copyright (c) 2023 Jena et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2173 Fri, 15 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Market Integration among Major Wheat Markets in India https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2174 <p>The study is based on secondary data which tests the price movement and integration between major national wheat markets i.e. Lakhimpur, Agra, Vidisha, Dewas, Kota and Baran markets. Monthly wheat prices data of 15 years from 2007-08 to 2021-22 which was collected from www.agmarknet.gov.in. To analyze the market integration among major wheat markets, the Augmented Dickey-Fuller test, Johansen Co-integration test and Granger Causality test were applied with the help of E-views statistical package. The results indicated the strong market integration in terms of price linkages among major wheat markets. The results revealed that the major markets of wheat have strong price linkages and thus are spatially integrated. It could be seen that existence of mostly (10) unidirectional causality with few (3) bidirectional causality among selected wheat markets.&nbsp; It was further revealed from the analysis that, any disturbance in price will get corrected in about 5 days in Lakhimpur market, 3 days in Agra market and 3 days in Kota market in short-run equilibrium. The transfer of price signals from one market to another helps in stabilizing the prices over space and create a healthy competitive environment. This would also help to protect the interest of producer-sellers. In order to achieve the goal of integration, the government should strengthen the market intelligence and communication within markets. The following study recommendations were made: a) Government should subsidize provide is transportation. b) Government and stakeholder should advise commercial banks to give low interest long-term loans to farmers because many impoverished farmers can't afford crop mechanization. c) Government and other i.e, NGO advertising should be increased to raise knowledge about improved agricultural machinery. d) Government and other i.e, NGO should educate farmers. Farmers can employ technology if they are trained and educated. They should also be told how much fertilizer to use so it yields more.</p> Udhayan N., A. D. Naik , G. M. Hiremath Copyright (c) 2023 Udhayan et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2174 Fri, 15 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Cowpea Marketing and Consumption Preference in Potiskum Local Government Area of Yobe State, Nigeria https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2175 <p>The article sought to examine cowpea marketing and consumption preference in Potiskum Local Government Area (LGA) in Yobe State, Nigeria. Yobe State is one of the major producers of Cowpea in Nigeria and there is a high level of marketing activity on Cowpea in the State. The objectives of this article are Identify the socio-economic characteristic of the respondent; determine the channels associated with cowpea marketing in the study area; examine the factors that determine the price of cowpea in Potiskum L.G.A; and determine the choice of the respondent in the use of cowpea types. Multi-stage sampling procedure was adopted to select 150 respondents. Descriptive statistics, OLS regression analysis and semantic differential scale were used as the analytical tools. Major results revealed that the market was mostly dominated by men (78. 66%), who are majorly singles (77.33%) in a household of 1 -10 persons (76. 67%) and (70%) had marketing experience of 1-10 years. The marketers are averagely educated and can read and write in Quranic and western Education. The marketing channel revealed that sales of cowpea start from the farm gate to the final consumer. The factors that affect cowpea retail price had an adjusted R<sup>2</sup> of 72.8% with household size, source of supply and sources of loan having a positive effect on the price of a 100kg bag of cowpea. While the factors that affect wholesale price had an adjusted R<sup>2</sup> of 66.4% with age, sources of supply, loading and offloading, sources of loan and storage having positive effects on the price of a 100 kg bag of cowpea. The Semantic Differential Scale revealed that brown cowpea was much preferred in the study area despite its high price. The article concluded that there was a free flow of information, adequate market intelligence among the market stakeholders and the business is profitable. It was recommended that an affordable storage facility should be made available to marketers, and market policy be made in the State to enhance the business profile through the improvement of transportation and market price information.</p> Waziri-Ugwu, Phidelia Ramatu , David Hyelni Seth Copyright (c) 2023 Ramatu and Seth; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2175 Fri, 15 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 An Economic Analysis and Resource Use Efficiency of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and Its Competing Crops Cultivation in Haryana, India https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2176 <p>The present study has been conducted in the Mahendergarh and Nizampur blocks of Mahendergard district and Rewari block from Rewari district of Haryana state. In order to draw meaningful inferences from data, the descriptive statistics, resource use efficiency worked out by Cobb-Douglas production function technique and constraints were identified on the basis of their rating (severe, moderate and least) in production of sesame. The results of the study showed that gross returns and return over variable cost per hectare were Rs. 47,048, Rs. 56,349, Rs. 54,948 and Rs. 26,697 Rs. 27,902, Rs. 32,575 in sesame, bajra and cluster bean, respectively. Benefit cost ratio (BCR) over total cost was accounted 1.16, 1.09 and 1.21 in sesame, bajra, and cluster bean crops respectively. It has been found that sesame provides lower returns in term of gross returns as well as returns over variable cost as compared to its major competing crops bajra and cluster bean. The regression analysis has brought out that the ratio of MVP/MFC is (&gt;1) there exists sufficient potential in spending on fertilizers, irrigation and plant protection measures. The constraints faced by farmers indicated that the technological up gradation, effective market support (for inputs &amp; output) were required to make sesame production a remunerative enterprise.</p> Neeraj Pawar, D. P. Malik, Sumit Copyright (c) 2023 Pawar et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2176 Sat, 16 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Determinants of Youth Migration to Urban Areas in Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2177 <p>Youth are considered as the pillars that provide support and strength to the country. India is said to be a land of youth and villages. This paper is an effort to analyze the socio-economic profile of rural youths of eastern Uttar Pradesh along with their Migration Status. The sample size of 160 rural youth was randomly selected for the study and data were collected through personal interview method during 2023. Multi stage random sampling technique was adopted for the study with the Descriptive research design. The study was conducted in Eastern part of Uttar Pradesh in the districts Chandauli, Varanasi, Gorakhpur, and Deoria. Two blocks were selected from each selected district. Therefore, total of eight blocks were considered for study. From each selected block, two villages were selected for the present research. Ultimately, Sixteen villages were selected. A total of 160 respondents were selected from 16 villages, 10 respondents from each village. To obtain the data from 160 respondents, 197 respondents were contacted for clear and satisfactory response as per specific objectives of the study. The study revealed that highest per centage (47.50 per cent) of respondents were from middle age rural youth category i.e. 18-24 years and maximum number of respondents (55.63 per cent) belonged to other backward caste with maximum numbers of respondents (49.37 per cent) were graduate level of education. Joint family along with Mixed housing pattern is more common as revealed from the study. Most (38.13 per cent) of the respondents had small land holding i.e. 1-2ha with (48.12 per cent) of respondents having income between Rs. 2,00,001-3,00,000 income per annum from agriculture while Study also reveals that maximum land are owned by parents. 66.25 per cent of the respondents have prior migration experience and the main reason behind migration was education.</p> Rishabh Kumar Maurya, R. N. Yadav, D. K. Singh, L. B. Singh, R. B. Yadav, Pankaj Kumar Ojha, Monika Devi Konjengbam Copyright (c) 2023 Maurya et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2177 Sat, 16 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Organic Farming on the Livelihood of Organic Farmers in Manipur https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2178 <p>The study was conducted to evaluate how organic farming has affected the livelihood of organic farmers. The research was carried out in Churachandpur and Imphal West districts of Manipur. The ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. Data were collected using a structured and pre-tested interview schedule through personal interview method. The direct impact consisting of yield, income and cost of cultivation and the indirect impact such as personal, social, economic and environmental impact were considered for the study. The outcomes of the study indicated that regarding overall impact, the majority of the organic farmers were having medium to high level of impact of organic farming. Regarding direct impact, majority of the organic farming has reported an increase in yield, income and a decrease in the cost of cultivation. Whereas for indirect impact the majority of the organic farmers have reported increased confidence in sustainable farming, participation in social organizations, household savings and improvement in soil fertility and quality.</p> Monika Devi Konjengbam, Dan Singh, R. N. Yadav , D. K. Singh , L. B. Singh, Mukesh Kumar , D. K. Sachan, Mohit Kumar Pandey Copyright (c) 2023 Konjengbam et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2178 Mon, 18 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assimilating the Responsible Factors for the Technical Efficiency of Organic Brown Sugar Production: Stochastic Frontier Approach https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2179 <p>The demand for organic brown sugar has shown significant growth in recent years, presenting an opportunity to enhance production by strategically leveraging existing expertise among stakeholders. The objective of this study was to assess the viability of producing brown sugar, with a particular focus on the technical efficiency of marginal cane farmers. This study investigates the technical efficiency of sugarcane farmers who are concurrently engaged in the production of organic brown sugar within a specific region in Bangladesh. The data collection process involved the use of purposive sampling, which resulted in the collection of 163 farm data sets from September to December 2021. Subsequently, a stochastic frontier production function was carefully employed to estimate the technical efficiency of the selected brown sugar producers. The findings of the current study demonstrate that less than half of the respondents (47.24%) were involved in activities linked to maintain a high efficiency level that was greater than 91 percent. It was discovered that a range of technical efficiency scores, which varied from 49.94 to 98.38 percent, with a mean value of 84.5%. There exists a significant potential for enhancing crop productivity by up to 15.5% with the implementation of improved agricultural management techniques like substantial experience, education, and training which tends to exhibit enhanced the efficiency of the production.</p> Mahmuda Khatun , Mashrat Jahan , Kazi Tamim Rahman , M. Abdul Karim , Md. Rezaul Karim Copyright (c) 2023 Khatun et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2179 Tue, 19 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Extension Communication Channel in the Adoption Process of Hermetic Bag Storage Technology in Nakuru, Kenya https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2180 <p>This study sought to examine effectiveness of extension communication channel on adoption process of hermetic bag storage technology. This was prompted by the various maize post-harvest losses experienced by farmers despite maize being staple food in Kenya. Correlational study design was employed while proportional simple random sampling technique was used to obtain a sample size of 120 farmers in the Njoro, Molo and Rongai sub-counties of Nakuru County. Content and face validity was assessed by subjecting the instrument to critique by experts in Egerton University. Cronbach alpha was used to estimate the reliability of the research instruments and was found to be 0.848. Descriptive statistics (means, percentages and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation) were employed for data analysis. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis was used to test the hypotheses at significant level of α = 0.05. The results indicated that Pearson Correlation was highest at the decision-making stage 0.853 followed by the persuasion stage at 0.651, adoption stage at 0.624 then implementation stage came fourth at 0.466 and finally awareness stage at 0. 363. Therefore the study established that extension communication channel is effective in adoption process of hermetic bag storage technology. This is with strong positive influence at decision stage and weak positive influence at awareness stage of the adoption process. The study hence that Government should come up with policies to support extension service to facilitate the adoption of hermetic bag storage technology and hence attain food security.</p> N. N. Muriuki , C. N. Munyua , D. A. Odero-Wanga Copyright (c) 2023 Muriuki et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2180 Wed, 20 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Market Arrivals and Price Behavior of Wheat in Major Markets of India https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2181 <p>Behaviour of prices of agricultural commodities results from the basic characteristics of agricultural sector and farm products. This study is based on the secondary data of 15 years from 2007-08 to 2021-22 which was collected from www.agmarknet.gov.in. For the analytical framework, the linear trend equation was used to study the trend in arrivals and prices. During the study period, the pattern of trend in arrivals and prices was differed across the selected markets. All the selected market for wheat showed increasing trend in arrivals and prices over the years. The per annum increase in the arrivals of wheat in Lakhimpur market was the highest at 1884.86 quintals followed by Vidisha, Baran, Dewas, Kota and Agra markets at 1394.74, 942.65, 782.61, 389.19 and 56.53 quintals respectively. The quantum of increase in the arrivals of wheat might be due to the increased production in these regions. Increased productivity and arrivals was attributable to introduction of high yielding varieties, technological advancement, increased demand for wheat in the international market, prices lead to better productivity realization by farmers in the surrounding hinterlands of Lakhimpur, Vidisha, Baran and Dewas area and supplied to these markets. Market arrivals registered lowest quantum of increase in Agra and Kota markets. The lowest quantum of increase in arrivals of wheat might be due to increasing heat stress, other problems experienced by producers in production level and shift in cropping pattern of the farmers towards other commercial crops in those regions. Seasonal indices of arrivals and prices of wheat in selected markets revealed that when the arrivals of wheat to the market were high, the prices were found to be low i.e., March to June. Seasonal price indices of wheat indicate that the price realized by farmers was low during the post- harvest month. Hence, infrastructural facilities like warehouses and market extension services have to be strengthened for encouraging and bringing awareness among the farming community about the availability of warehouses and marketing credit to reap the better benefits.</p> Udhayan N., A. D. Naik , G. M. Hiremath Copyright (c) 2023 Udhayan et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2181 Wed, 20 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis and Comparison of Policy Regimes for the Value Added in Agricultural Sector https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2182 <p>The study was conducted with the aim to compare the value added in agricultural sector in different political regimes. The study period was from 1971-2018. The data on real value added in agriculture and allied sectors were collected from the official website of FAO STATISTICS and the data on political regime scores were collected from Polity Project website. The study period was divided into three periods, each lasting 15 years, namely period I (1971–1986), period II (1987–2002), and period III (2003–2018). The triennium ending averages of the first and last years for each period were used as the base year and the current year, respectively. The analytical tools used in the study were absolute change, relative change average annual growth rate and instability index. In the first period instability was higher in democratic regimes. In the second period instability among autocratic regimes increased to 2.34 percent compared to 2.12 percent among democratic regimes. In the third period growth rate increased to 6.03 per cent in the autocratic conditions. The instability of the real value added in the agriculture sector under autocratic regimes during the second period was 2.34 percent, higher than it was for the other periods. It is important for democratic economies to adopt advantageous features of agricultural policy from autocratic regimes in order to boost economic growth.</p> Gourav Kumar Vani , Ashutosh Shrivastav , Poonam Chaturvedi , Ankita Rajput Copyright (c) 2023 Vani et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2182 Thu, 21 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Awareness and Utilization of Various Weather Based Advisory Services in Western Zone of Tamil Nadu, India https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2183 <p>Weather-centric crop advisory services offer timely updates on weather trends, crop condition, and recommended actions, empowering farmers to make knowledgeable choices regarding diverse crop management techniques. This ultimately results in improved yields and augmented income. This study was carried out to find the Awareness and Utilization level of various Weather Agro advisory services disseminated through various sources among the farmers. Ex post facto research Design was followed in the study. The Salem and Coimbatore district were purposively selected because dissemination of weather information to the farmers in the district through District Agromet units (DAMU). Based on simple random sampling technique 120 respondents were taken for the study. The responses were interpreted using frequency and percentage analysis. Correlation was used to find the relationship between the independent variables and dependent variables using the Statistical packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The result indicates that there was medium level of awareness about 67.5 per cent of respondents and utilization level of about 71.67 per cent of respondents. The variables such as education, extension agency contact, use of media tools, source of weather information are significant and positively correlated to Awareness and utilization The Weather forecast information credibility and accuracy can be increased to high level of awareness and utilization by providing the credible weather data on timely basis.</p> Rathip Kumar J., Anandaraja N., Nirmala Devi M., Sathyamoorthy N. K., Pangayar Selvi. R. Copyright (c) 2023 Kumar et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2183 Fri, 22 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Income Generating Activities on Self-Help Groups Members of Mahabubnagar District of Telangana, India https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2184 <p>Whereas there is ample evidence that the Self-Help Groups (SHG) approach is a very effective, efficient, and relevant tool for organizing and empowering the poor, do arise with the design, development, and introduction of programs to promote income-generating activities (IGAs) that will generate sufficient, sustainable and regular income. Mahabubnagar district is one of the 33 districts in the Indian state of Telangana. The district is situated in the Southern Telangana region of the state. The administrative headquarters of the district is situated at Mahabubnagar Urban. The wide range of agricultural activities and allied sources undertaken by the SHG members in the study 11.11 per cent of respondents had dairy and 8.33 per cent of respondents had piggery meager proportion of respondents 6.66 per cent had gone for goattery production. A maximum of less than half 34.44 per cent of the respondents had paddy cultivation as their primary occupation followed by vegetable cultivation engaged by 22.77 per cent of the respondents and 20.00 per cent of SHG members were also involved in sugarcane cultivation. More than one-tenth 15.00 per cent of respondents had gone for banana cultivation whereas a meager proportion of respondents 7.22 per cent had gone for vermicompost production. Several respondents were engaged in individual sources apart from their group to be involved in tailoring 18.88 per cent, pickles making 16.66 percent and toys making 13.88 per cent, Regarding group based activity, napkin preparation 15.00 per cent, curry leaf powder preparation 11.12 cent, foot mat preparation 10.00 per cent and areca plate preparation 10.55 per cent were the major income generating activities found in the study area.</p> Padwal Dhanraj, Dipak Kumar Bose Copyright (c) 2023 Dhanraj and Bose; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2184 Fri, 22 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000