The present study was undertaken in rural Tamil Nadu to explore various constraints in livestock rearing in rural Tamil Nadu using randomly selected 100 dairy farmers and 113 sheep and goat farmers from six sample districts. The data pertaining to the objectives of the study were collected through personal interview. Most of the poor livestock farmers expressed fodder shortage (with RBQ more than 60), water scarcity (RBQ – around 60 for buffalo and sheep), labour problems (RBQ – 55.71 to 62.08) as their major constraints. However, priority of the constraints varied with respect to the livestock species reared.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is an herbaceous perennial plant belonging to the Order Scitamineae and the family Zingiberaceae. It is used for both medicinal and culinary purposes. it is a root crop and a typical herb extensively grown across the world for its pungent aromatic underground stem and rhizome which make it an important export commodity in the world trade. Ginger’s origin is not well established though it is generally thought to be native of Asia, where it was first cultivated. It was also cultivated in tropical regions of America. Ginger was introduced to Europe by Arab traders from India the first century AD. Ginger was introduced to Nigeria in 1927.The study was carried out to examine the socio economics of ginger production in Jaba Local Government Area of Kaduna State. The objectives of this study are to; identify the socio economic characteristic of ginger production, assess the extent of profitability of ginger production in the study area, and to determine the socio economic factors affecting the production of ginger. The data were obtained primarily by administering questionnaires to 60 farmers that were purposively selected from four wards, namely: Daddu, Samban, Nok, and sab-zuro. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, multiple regression analysis gross margin and productivity. The result of the multiple regression shows that among 8 variables used in the analysis, only 3 variables significantly influenced ginger production education, credit, and farm size. The gross margin was calculated to be ₦177,756.69 and a return to naira of ₦1.21 was realized. The major constraints militating against ginger production in the study area are inadequate input, poor transportation facilities, high cost of labour and inadequate credit. It is recommended that extension services are needed in the study area to educate the farmer on the use of agro chemicals, input and agro practices toward increase in production and there is need for farmer to form cooperatives groups to help them provide credit to their member in good time and substantial amount.
The majority of crop pollination services are provided by the honey bee (Apis mellifera) but almost not available in most developing countries including Nigeria. This study was undertaken to assess adoption of Bee Pollination Services (BPS) by arable crop farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria. A field survey with questionnaire administration was conducted in 10 Local Government Areas of Kwara State, Nigeria. A total of 160 farmers consisting of 80 watermelon and 80 soybean farmers were randomly sampled in two categories. The first category consist of 17 watermelon and 31 soybean farmers with farms located near apiary while the second category consist of 63 watermelon and 49 soybean farmers far away from apiary. The tools of analysis were descriptive statistics, net margin model and double difference estimators. The results revealed that the average age of watermelon and soybean farmers were 43 and 45 years, mean education index of 4.1 and 4.6 years respectively, household size of 8 for both and average annual farm income of ₦120550 and ₦135600 respectively. The empirical results also revealed there is a significant difference in average annual farm income among watermelon and soybean farmers who adopt BPS and non-adopters. The result showed that low level of farmers’ awareness of importance of BPS and lack of relevant knowledge and skill to adopt BPS are the two most critical constraints towards adoption and application of BPS. The study recommends farmers’ enlightenment and training through extension agents to adopt bee pollination service for insect dependent crop production.
A proportionate number of Nigerian youths engaged in Okada riding coined (Okada) business ‘Commercial motorcyclist’. The business has drained manpower from the vocational sectors of the Nigerian economy. The study was carried out to assess the Thrust and Tug Nexus for Okada business among Youths and the implications for their future development. A total of 300 respondents were randomly selected from the list of registered Okada riders in 16 take off points from Ekiti and Ondo states while a structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from them. The findings of the study show that most of the Okada riders were young and married with moderate family sizes. They are mostly literate. The average years of engaging in Okada riding was 3.8 years. A good percentage (41%) was formerly employed. The study established a strong connection between the tug and thrust nexus to Okada business. The factors that pushed them to Okada business were the economic depression, unattractive vocational jobs, poverty, erratic power supply, retrenchments and unemployment and the lack of fund to start a job. The pull factors include an ability to get daily income from Okada, ease of entry the business, high returns from the business when compared to other jobs, ability to be famous and popular among peers and a quick money making venture. Okada business could have adverse effects on the future of the youth and wasn’t considered as a vocation worth bequeathing to children. However, it has the tendency to sustain their family in the face of unemployment temporarily. The study recommends the invigoration of the economy of Nigeria; the provision of an enabling environment for the vocational sector to strive; capacity building of youths in the different vocations and the encouragement of the patronization of made in Nigeria goods.
A comparative study was conducted among randomly selected Agricultural and Coir Industry women wage Labourers of Sonitpur district, Assam, India during 2012-13 to find out whether more economic empowerment of women is able to change the status of women in society or still customs and values play a role to assign status of a person thorough field survey and questioner methods. It was found that the agricultural wage labourers had more children than that of the coir industry wage labourers. It was because of preference for male child and lesser control over choices. Though they didn’t want to have another child, the preference and inability to take the decisions along with their husbands led to more children. The decision making authority was solely with the male partners. Whereas, the coir industry wage labourers had some power with their husbands to take decisions like family planning. Those decisions had an impact on the family income and expenditure. The family income of the coir industry wage labourers were higher than that of the agricultural wage labourers and having lesser children had positive impact on the children’s education and nutritional supply in the families. The coir industry wage labourers were comparatively more educated than the agricultural wage labourers. This also helped them to go for family planning. With extra income, the coir industry labourers were able to spend more in nutritious food, education for children and the expenses on the alcoholic items were cut down as came up in the study vis-a-vis the agricultural wage labours. The agricultural wage labourers were new in the field of savings. Very recently they had started savings and they didn’t have any bank deposits rather they saved very small amounts with Self Help Groups (SHG). The coir industry wage labourers also had savings with SHGs and very few had deposits in banks. However, the concept of saving was new to them. The household items of the agricultural labourers’ house didn’t include electricity, but most of them had mobile phones. Nevertheless, the coir industry labourers were well equipped with household items necessary for better sustenance. Economic self-sufficiency and education, use of technology, exposure to the outer world, decision making etc. determined the amount of empowerment. The agricultural labourers were comparatively lacking in empowerment than the coir industry labourers in Tezpur sub-division of Sonitpur district of Assam, India.