Open Access Case study

A Case Study of Dairy-Based Farmer Producer Company in Haryana: Collective Action Approach for Enhancing Farmer Income

Sunil Kumar, Devendra Kumar Meena, Vishnu Shankar Meena

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 78-87
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i430563

The concept behind Farmer Producer Organizations is that farmers, who are the producers of agricultural products, can form groups and register themselves under the Indian Companies Act 1956. The aim is to enhance farmer’s income, capacity building, competitiveness, and increase their advantage in emerging market opportunities. To examine the role of farmer producer organization in enhancing farmers, a case study was conducted in Karnal District of Haryana. Study the management and governance system of FPC and assess the impact of FPC on members was the objective of the case study. Personal interviews and group discussion methods were used for data collection and gathering information on FPC. Mishti farmer producer organization was established on 25 march 2013 for collecting, processing, and marketing milk and milk products. It covered eight villages of Karnal and collect raw milk from members and non-members farmers at high price than other value chain actors. The result of the study indicate that farmer who supplies milk to FPC, get 8-10 rupee per lit high price than others. It also provides bonus to member farmers who are shareholders of the company and their income from dairy farming is enhanced by 25-30 percent. FPC also plays a significant role in enhancing the backward and forward linkage of farmers and capacity building of farmers in different agricultural aspect.  Members of FPC are highly satisfied with the services provided by FPC and its performance in local areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Does Size of Landholding Contributing Highest Share to Consumption Expenditure Inequalities among Agricultural Households?

M. Areef, Y. Radha, V. S. Rao, P. V. S. Gopal, K. S. R. Paul, K. Suseela, S. Rajeswari

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i430557

This study aims to identify factors that contribute to consumption expenditure inequality and employed the regression based inequality decomposition (RBID) method. Used primary data on agricultural households’ consumption expenditure for the agricultural year 2018-19 in the south coastal region of Andhra Pradesh. The results compared across the landholding size wise category and concluded that monthly income, dependency ratio, non-farm income-earning members and size of household contributed highest percentage share to total inequality for food, non-food and total consumption expenditure. At the aggregate (overall farmers) level highest percentage of inequality share contributed by monthly income and followed by the size of landholding. There is a need to focus on control the size of households by narrowing the dependency ratio and enhance the monthly income of agricultural households by providing employment opportunities in both farm and non-farm income-earning activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Examining Profitability and Viability of Urban and Peri-Urban Dairy Farms

A. L. Rathva, L. M. Sorathiya, D. N. Gadhvi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 9-16
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i430558

Cost benefit analysis in 20 each urban and periurban dairy farms nearby Navsari city of Gujarat, India were studied. The required information from selected farms was collected through personal interview. The collected and derived data were subject to statistics as per standard technique in Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Total fixed cost in urban and peri urban area was Rs. 2.27±0.36 and 2.05±0.33 lakh, respectively. Among total cost, fixed cost was 11.42%, further; it was nonsignificant among urban and peri-urban farms. Total variable cost was looked higher in urban farms i.e. Rs.18.97±2.47 and 14.50±2.33 in urban and periurban farms, respectively, however, it was nonsignificant between two areas. The proportion of variable cost was major (88.58%) among total cost. Among total cost feed-fodder cost was highest i.e. 70.10% followed by labour cost i.e. 17.13%. Gross total income was found higher in urban farms but it was nonsignificant between two regions. Pooled gross total income was Rs. 23.05 lakh. Average total income from sale of milk was Rs. 21.70 lakh (92.72%). Sale of animals (4.31%) and sale of dung (2.98%) was also having some contribution in return. The average net profit in urban farms was found nonsignificant higher i.e. Rs. 5.52 and 3.48 lakh, in urban and peri urban farms, respectively. When farms was compared based on net return per adult unit the urban farms was significantly more profitable (US$ 172 v/s 136). The net profit per litre of milk was Rs. 9.20 and 6.80 in urban and periurban farms, respectively. The overall benefit cost ratio was found 1:1.20. It was also higher in urban area. Thus, it can be concluded that urban and periurban dairy farms are profitable and viable enterprise.

Open Access Original Research Article

State-wise Production Performance of Basmati and Non-Basmati Rice in India

M. Udhayakumar, K. R. Karunakaran, M. Thilagavathi, K. R. Ashok

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 17-31
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i430559

The present study was designed to evaluate the state wise Basmati and non-Basmati rice production performance in India. The study is based on the time series data on area production and yield which were compiled from various sources for a period of 39 years (1980-81 to 2018-19). The sate wise analysis considers for the major basmati and non-basmati production sates by merging the newly divide states to parents’ sates like Telangana to AP etc. While considering overall period in basmati area (6.01%) production (10.55%) and yield (4.28%) shows positive growth rate with 1 per cent level of significance. Allover India shows positive growth rate like area (0.24%), production (1.95%) and Productivity (1.70%) with 1 per cent level of significance. For India, in overall period it is more stable as Area (2.89), Production (6.07) and yield (4.5) give low instability percent. Special attention program is need to enhance the production of rice in Assam and Orissa were two states are in lowest category in terms of productivity, so effects may be taken to increase the productivity in Assam and further increase from medium to high productivity states in case of Andhra Pradesh.

Open Access Original Research Article

Drivers of Rural Income Diversification in Developing Countries: Case Study of Burundi

Eloi Edouard Kwizera

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 32-58
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i430560

The significance of rural income generation is obvious for rural well-being enhancement and rural development in particular and widely national development. The research carried on income pattern analysis enabling to detect the ways to achieve the rural income generation enhancement and so far, the rural development and rural well-being improvement. The discussions about income diversification aim have mainly been divided on one hand in income maximization household objective by increasing output, on the other hand, risk and seasonality of income management. Nevertheless, in all cases, income diversification has been seen as an income increasing factor of income, poverty reduction, and well-being enhancement. The study findings shows that The income level is quite different by sources of income of household, a high income level is achieved in beekeeping at level of 5134.04 thousand BIF, but only 5% of households are involved in beekeeping, whereas the lowest income average is realized in livestock selling, 12.88 thousand BIF and 83% of households benefit from the income of livestock selling. The income from agriculture is also low, it is 112.1 thousand BIF and 100% of the 2,560 households surveyed are involved in agricultural income generation. It is also shown that there is a high share of agricultural income in the total rural income, 67% of rural income is from agriculture. The income diversification level was calculated by using the Berry index. The average Berry index of 0.06 shows a low-income diversification level in the rural households of Burundi. The analysis of income diversification by considering the household income diversification index has proven a higher income for household that their income sources are diversified. The household average income for the household with sources of income diversified is 2.7 times higher than those with one source. The analysis of determinants of income diversification participation realized using probit model has shown that household income, agricultural household landholding, the age of household head, belonging to agricultural producers’ organization, reading skills at least of the national language, and access to market positively induce the income diversification participation, while female household headed status and the non-governmental organizations interventions negatively impact the income diversification participation. The intensity of income diversification analysis done by Tobit model shows that income diversification intensity is positively influenced by household income level, producers’ organization participation, access to market, age of household head and negatively affected by the female household headed status, and non-governmental organizations interventions. Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations and policy implications are possible to improve the rural well-being and poverty reduction by increasing rural income through income diversification facilitation. The research findings showed that rural income diversification is positively related to market access. The policy aiming at rural income enhancement by increasing rural income source diversification might take into consideration the increasing availability of the market and linkages of rural households to the market by any means. The increase in the market orientation of the rural household might be achieved by increasing the availability of the market information system. Policy making might focus on increasing factors that increase the market orientation decisions of rural household by the increase of the rural market place, making market information available and enhancing the transport means of rural products. The policy targeting rural income enhancement and sources of diversification should be achieved by reducing the vulnerability of young farmers and households headed by females by supporting rural young farmers and female farmers. The increasing economic empowerment of young farmers and female headed households should be promoted. The policy makers should also focus on increasing education skills at least the reading skills of the national language of rural farmers since reading skills have been proven to have a positive influence on rural income source diversification. The adult literacy programs might continue and try to reach the majority of rural uneducated farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

A study on Profile Characteristics of Agricultural Officers in State Department of Agriculture, Andhra Pradesh

D. V. Kusumalatha, N. S. Shivalinge Gowda, H. K. Pankaja, C. Kavyashree

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 71-77
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i430562

Extension systems in India have played immense role in delivering the services to the farmers there by increasing the agricultural productivity. Agricultural officers (AO’s) working in the State Department of Agriculture had greater responsibilities on them to convey recent advancements to the farmers. The profile characteristics of the AOs shows how well they are equipped and can plan the activities that befit the farmers. The study was conducted in southern zone of Andhra Pradesh by considering 90 respondents. Data collection was done by structured questionnaire and personal interview method. The results revealed that majority of AOs stands at medium category with respect to variables like achievement motivation, perceived workload, morale, job involvement and attitude towards farmers. Whereas, characters like mass media exposure, interpersonal contact and self-reliance were at high category showing us the characters that need to be improved and can be used to our advantage for extension services delivery. Personal characters like age, gender, marital status, family size and type, rural-urban background, education and health were also studied and gave us the information on present status of the AO’s.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Floating Egyptian Pound on Agricultural Sector in Egypt

Ahmed Abou El-Yazid El-Rasoul, Marwa Ghareeb Ghanem, Mahmoud A. Shafei, Mohamed A. Sultan

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 100-112
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i430565

This research aimed to estimate the impact of applying flexible exchange rate on the Egyptian agriculture sector. Egypt applied floating exchange rate regime three times during the period 1991-2018. This research is based on some analytical approaches to achieve its objective such as robust regression and vector error correction model (VECM).It concluded that floating of Egyptian pound was not a good decision and it had a negative impact on Egyptian agricultural sector. The positive relationship between real Egyptian agricultural gross domestic product and real agricultural imports as well as the positive relationship between real agricultural imports and dollar exchange rate in Egypt which are not apply the economic logic, proof that the floating exchange rate regime and the macroeconomic policies applied during the study period were not effective as Egypt imports good and service with high prices due to the devaluation of Egyptian pound. So, the growth in agricultural gross domestic product was not real. The Egyptian government should pay more attention on the agricultural sector.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ergonomic Evaluation of Women Farm Workers Using Different Manual Weeding Tools in Maize Crop of Udaipur District

M. Anusha, A. K. Mehta, A. K. Sharma, S. M. Mathur

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 59-70
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i430561

Women play a major and crucial role in doing the agricultural operations. The women workers in Udaipur district mostly uses sickle and kudali for doing weeding operations. This study was conducted in 2019-20 at instructional Farm, CTAE, Udaipur with women farm workers during the manual weeding operation by using different traditional tools like hand hoe (kudali) along with technically and ergonomically designed wheel hand hoe. The main objective of the study was to investigate the most drudgery prone tool and to recommend the proper tool for doing weeding operations in maize crop. Use of proper tools not only reduce the drudgery but also improves the operating efficiency along with the comfort, besides improving the productivity of the women farm workers in doing the operation. In view of this, an effort has been made to assess the physical and physiological parameters of women farm workers who are using traditional farm tools along with the improved tools for doing weeding operation in maize crop. The whole study was conducted on ten female farm workers identified from the population of workers in the age group of 18 to 45 years. During the experiment, physiological workload i.e., heart rate, oxygen consumption rate, energy expenditure rate and physical workload i.e., overall discomfort rate, rate of perceived exertion and Musculo-skeletal problems were measured. The Pratap wheel hand hoe saves nearly 36% of the cardiac cost of the worker per unit of output and wheel hand hoe saves nearly 38% of the cardiac cost of the worker per unit of output which is nothing but reduction in drudgery by 36% and 38% by both the weeding tools over kudali. Area covered with Pratap wheel hand hoe and wheel hand hoe were 1.70 and 1.69 times more over kudali.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Participation of Women Farm Workers in Agricultural Activities in Maize-Wheat Cropping System of Udaipur District

M. Anusha, A. K. Mehta

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 113-124
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i430566

Women play a major and crucial role within the agricultural operations. Agriculture is the major occupation in our country and more than 70% of the population depends directly or indirectly on agriculture. In India, 82% of the farmers own marginal and small land less than 2 hectares (Food and agriculture organization). Most Percentages of the women hail from rural areas where the impact of science and technology on the standard of living is limited. This study was conducted to investigate the Percentage participation of women farm workers in agriculture activities in district Udaipur during 2019-20. Five villages of Vallabh Nagar and Gogunda block/Tehsil of the Udaipur district of Rajasthan state were selected randomly for this study, representing the maize-wheat cropping area of the zone. An interview schedule was used to collect data from a random sample from 500 farmers with farm units less than or equal to 2 hectares and follows maize-wheat cropping system. Women in the study area showed active participation in agricultural activities together and alone in Gogunda and Vallabh Nagar blocks. Women of study area also showed the highest traditional participation and spends much time in agriculture activities. The average time spent by women per hectare basis in weeding operations, cob picking, stalk harvesting during maize crop are 94-161, 214, 99-118 hours/hectare/woman respectively and 110 – 138 hours/hectare/woman during harvesting in wheat crop. These activities are considered the most drudgery prone activities in Maize-Wheat cropping system. Moreover, women perform some of these identified tasks traditionally due to limited knowledge and skill in applying science and technology to daily living, which consumes most of their time and energy. These were the major causes of discontentment among women involved in agricultural activities. There is no doubt that some of the traditional implement have low risk. Still, at the same time they also have a low level of productivity whereas, improved agricultural tools and implements provides high productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Extent of Adoption of Agri Waste Management Practices by the Farmers of Medak District of Telangana, India

G. Ravi, B. Savitha, M. Sreenivasulu, Ch. G. E. Vidyasagar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 125-133
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i430567

Agricultural waste refers to waste produced from agricultural operations, including waste from farms, poultry houses and slaughterhouses. The present study was focused on, to study the extent of adoption of agri waste management practices and its relationship with the profile of the farmers. The Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study with a sample of 120, covering Medak district of Telangana state. From the analysis, it was found that majority of the farmers (45.80%) fall under the category of medium adoption, followed by low (27.50%) and high (26.70%) adoption categories with regards to the adoption of agri waste management practices. Correlation analysis between extent of adoption of agri waste management practices and profile characteristics of respondents revealed that, information seeking behavior had positive and significant relationship with adoption at one percent level of significance. The variables education, cropping pattern, infrastructure facilities, innovativeness, achievement motivation, training undergone had positive and farming experience had negative significant relationship with adoption at five per cent level of significance. The remaining variables, age, cropping intensity had negatively and farm size, level of aspiration had positively non-significant relationship with extent of adoption of agri waste management practices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Livestock Value Chain Actors on Climate Smart Agriculture/Livestock (CSA/L) in Kajiado County, Kenya

Mary W. Thongoh, H. M. Mutembei, J. Mburu, B. E. Kathambi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 134-148
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i430568

The livestock sector is a major contributor to food security and is mainly practiced by the rural poor but faces climate related threats. While there are many natural occurrences impacting the average global temperature and consequently livestock production, human activities in the sector continue to be a main contributing factor to climate change as a result of greenhouse gas emissions. However there has been little attention paid to integration of climate smart initiatives into livestock production and beyond into the value chains especially in ASALs where 80% of livestock production is found. A mixed method approach was used to evaluate KAP (knowledge, attitudes and practices) of the Livestock value chain actors (MSMEs). Linking Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) to MSMEs within the livestock sector value chains is imperative to producers’ engagements within the livestock value chain, reducing climate risks and increasing resilience. The study revealed that actors relate climate change to weather variability, extreme weather conditions and drought and CSA/Livestock as a concept is not well understood; there is a general knowledge of climate change albeit with low understanding on its relationship with livestock, and concern among the value chain actors on the impacts of climate change on productivity and the willingness to take part in actions aimed at protecting the environment and mitigating climate change. There is need to provide context-based CSA technologies, innovation, and management practices (TIMPs) tailored to pastoral livestock production and ASALs value chains, strengthening of peer-to-peer learning and improving extension services to increase awareness, trainings and enhance adoption of CSA since most actors interact with extension officers, and with each other along the chains.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cotton Imports and GDP of Indonesia- Cointegration Analysis

P. Soumya, R. A. Yeledhalli

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 149-154
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i430569

The study examines the impact of cotton imports on the real GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of Indonesia for a period from 1992 to 2018 using ARDL approach and Granger causality analysis. Results of the study indicated that cotton imports have negative effect on economic growth. For every 1% increase in cotton imports the real GDP decreased by 0.107% in the long run. Any disequilibrium in the model is adjusted with a high speed of adjustment of 107.7% in less than a year. Shocks and the trend are adjusted in less than one year. There is no causality between imports of cotton and the real GDP. The study suggested effort should be taken by the government to increase yield of cotton by the use of technology and also a need to initiate farmers to take up cotton farming. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Constraints Faced and Suggestions Received by Self Help Group Members of Akola District, Maharashtra

Bolleboina Shilpa, P. P. Bhople, Banda Sainath

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 155-158
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i430570

Self Help Groups (SHGs) emerged as a key programming strategy in India for most of the women development activities starting with the NABARD led pilot project in 1992 that aimed at promoting and financing 500 SHGs across the country; the SHG – Bank Linkage programme has come a long way. However, given the SHG approach's positive outcomes, there are many problems and constraints that conflict with the SHGs. The present study was carried out in Akola district of Maharashtra state of India during the year 2018-19 with a sample size of 120 to define the constraints faced and suggestions offered by the members of SHGs. The Major constraints faced were lack of credit availability at low rates of interest, its adequacy and timely access followed by difficulty in managing time to spare for SHG activities from everyday household activities and non Cooperation of family members. Among the suggestions offered majority of the members offered women beneficiaries should be provided with adequate financing and subsidies, more income generating skills training should be organized for the members.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on International Cooperation in APTERR for Food Security

Kummin Kim

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 159-175
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i430571

This study is aimed at explicating the phenomenon of international cooperation and regional integration in case of a global crisis. To achieve the aim of this study, a well-structured questionnaire was conducted to participants at two different events. First, this study examines the relationship between food crises and the institutionalization of intergovernmental cooperation to deal with them. Second, it examines the key determining factors for the institutionalization of intergovernmental cooperation to deal with food crises. This study focuses on the ASEAN Plus Three Emergency Rice Reserve (APTERR) as a successful case of the institutionalization of intergovernmental cooperation to deal with food crises, and examines the above two issues by administering questionnaires to two groups of individuals: agricultural officials of the ASEAN member states who attended a seminar in Thailand (23 participants) and officials and scholars of the ASEAN member states who attended a seminar in Vietnam (22 participants) in 2018. The results show the relationship between food crises and institutionalized international cooperation, such as APTERR, among the Asian countries. First, this study reveals that certain circumstances, such as food crises, can stimulate institutionalized international cooperation, by providing a more profound insight into the complex interplays among the governments of nation-states. Second, when nations share an understanding of a common policy alternative or solution, the institutionalization of intergovernmental cooperation to deal with food crises is more likely to develop successfully. It is also confirmed that 'institutionalization of international cooperation' is possible through the sharing ofcommon policy solution under the situation of repeated and serious crises. These conditions tell us that intergovernmental cooperation such as APTERR is an exceptional phenomenon for nation-states that emphasize autonomy and independence. This study highlighted the key issues of the relationship between food crises and institutionalization of cooperation while trying to identify key determining factors in establishing an internationally coordinated mechanism for food security.

Open Access Review Article

Integrated Farming Systems: A Review of Farmers Friendly Approaches

Md. Mohiuddin Sheikh, T.S. Riar, A.K.M. Kanak Pervez

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 88-99
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i430564

Integrated Farming Systems (IFS) is a set of interrelated agro-economic activities where the components interact in a particular agrarian setting. The main thrust is to minimize risks and increase profitability. Around 90-95 percent of nutritional requirements are self-supplied through resource recycling, which curtails the cost of cultivation and increases profit margins and employment. Considering the IFS's importance, this is a review of the productivity, problems, and suggestions for improving IFS. The study's methodology was to integrate the secondary sources. We found efficient integration of field crops with farm animals for sustainable production, income generation, and employment opportunities for resource-poor rural farm families. Financial support with technical assistance and guidance for improving the standard of living of the farm families is suggested. An integrated farming system demonstration center should be established in every district for potential farmers to easily visit them and be informed about IFS as an option.